School Wide Positive Behavior and Intervention Support Joanne Barta PBIS Coach, Portland Public Schools May 21, 1013
Learning Targets • Review Behavior RtI and Positive Behavior & Instructional Supports (PBIS) • Discuss the ‘Why’ of a systematic tiered system as applied to behavior • Discuss the school psychologist’s role in PBIS
Who Are We? • Who am I? • Who are you?
PBIS by the Numbers • Began in the late 1990’s –George Sugai at University of Oregon • As of February 2012: • 14,400 school across the U.S. • 11 states >500 schools • 3 states >1000 schools • In Oregon >780 schools
Recognizing PBIS • Foundations • Safe & Civil Schools • EBS • PBS • SWPBIS SWPBIS=PBIS
What is BRtI & SWPBIS? • Based on Public Health/Prevention Model • Response to Intervention (B-RTI) & SWPBIS • 3 Tiers – Universal, Targeted, Intensive • Decision making framework that guides selection, integration & Implementation of the best evidence-based academic & behavioral practices for improving outcomes
SWPBIS is NOT: • A curriculum • A single intervention or practice • Additional time or work • Easy • Short-term commitment!
In Other Words. . . . PBIS is . . . the collective wisdom of a school staff at work to manage the culture and behavior in a school to improve academic and behavior outcomes for all students
Common Vocabulary RtI PBIS • Core 100% (Universal) • (Universal screening) • ALL students • Preventive & proactive • Strategic 15-20% (Targeted) • Targeted-small group • High efficiency • Rapid response • Progress monitoring • Intensive 1-5% (Intensive) • Individual students • Assessment-based • High intensity • Progress monitoring
Getting Tough Applied Challenge: Academic & behavior success (failure) are linked! Teaching to Corner
10 Dexter: “I hate this f____ing school, & you’re a dumbf_____.” Teacher: “That is disrespectful language. I’m sending you to the office so you’ll learn never to say those words again….starting now!” Reactive Management“Teaching”by Getting Tough
“Get Tough!”Immediate & seductive solution… Clamp down & increase monitoring Re-re-re-review rules Extend continuum & consistency of consequences Establish “bottom line” ...Predictable individual response
Reactive responses are understandable . . . When humans (adults & students) experience aversive situation, we want select interventions that produce immediate relief Remove student Remove ourselves Modify physical environment Assign responsibility for change to student &/or others (like parents)
When behavior doesn’t improve, we “Get Tougher!” Zero tolerance policies Increased surveillance Increased suspension & expulsion In-service training by expert Alternative programming These are understandable & predictable institutional responses!
Erroneous assumption that student… Is intentionally“bad” Will learn more appropriate behavior through increased use of “aversives” Will be better tomorrow…….
But….false sense of safety/security! Fosters environments of control Triggers & reinforces antisocial behavior Shifts accountability away from school Devalues child-adult relationship Weakens relationship between academic & social behavior programming
Science of behavior has taught us that students…. Are NOT born with “bad behaviors” Do NOT learn best when presented with only contingent aversive consequences . . . Do learn better ways of behaving by being taught directly & receiving positive feedback
SWPBS Logic! Successful individual student behavior support is linked to host environments or school climates that are effective, efficient, relevant, durable, scalable, & logical for ALL students (Zins & Ponti, 1990) 8
1. Common purpose & approach to discipline 2. Clear set of positive expectations & behaviors 3. Procedures for teaching expected behavior 4. Continuum of procedures for encouraging expected behavior 5. Continuum of procedures for discouraging inappropriate behavior 6. Procedures for on-going monitoring & evaluation School-wide Systems
School PBIS Team Tasks Initially develop the school-wide PBIS action plan Hold regular team meetings (2x monthly) Maintain communication with staff and coach Evaluate progress Report outcomes to Coach/Facilitator & District Coordinator Celebrate Success
Academic Systems Behavioral Systems • Intensive, Individual Interventions • Individual Students • Assessment-based • High Intensity • Intensive, Individual Interventions • Individual Students • Assessment-based • Intense, durable procedures • Targeted Group Interventions • Some students (at-risk) • High efficiency • Rapid response • Targeted Interventions • Some students (at-risk) • High efficiency • Rapid response • Individual or Group • Universal Interventions • All students • Preventive, proactive • Universal Interventions • All settings, all students • Preventive, proactive Designing School-Wide Systems for Student Success 1-5% 1-5% 5-10% 5-10% 80-90% 80-90%
In Terms of Numbers of Students… Few Some All
10% Staff Time/Energy • 20% Staff Time/Energy • 70% Staff Time/Energy In Terms of Staff Resources
Core/Universal--Tier 1 (ALL) Students with 0-3 behavioral referralsExamples •School-wide expectations defined and taught •Effective instruction and effective classroom management with differentiated instruction •Expectations reinforced (ratio 4:1) •Effective supervision •Fluent corrections for early-stage misbehavior (see CHAMPs and Teacher Encyclopedia)
Example Tier 1 (Cont.) •Social/emotional skills instruction (e.g. Second Step, bullying prevention, etc.) •Parent engagement •Grade level/peer teacher teams •Progress monitoring tools (data collection tools) •Attendance procedures •Universal Assessment •Before and after school programs/support
Expectations & behavioral skills are taught & recognized in natural context Expectations
Targeted--Tier 2 (Some 10-15%) Students with 3-5 behavioral referrals •Individual student problem solving team •Targeted social/emotional skills instruction groups (e.g. conflict management, anger management, organizational skills, etc.) •Targeted parent support groups and training (e.g. Insight, Guiding Good Choices, etc.) •Simple behavior plan— considering the purpose of the behavior •Meaningful work/job assignment •Progress monitoring tools (on task monitoring form, replacement behavior worksheet, ratio or interactions)
Tier 2 –(Cont.) • Check-in/check-out • Attendance phone calls/letters • Parent/student/teacher/administrator conferences • Mentoring • Modify procedures/increase supervision in non-classroom settings (Structured recess and/or lunch)
Intensive—Tier 3 (Few 3-5%)Students with more than 5 behavioral referrals • Individual student assessment • Behavior Support Plan (with FBA) • Collaborative Problem solving • Special education evaluation • Mental health evaluation referral • Alcohol/Drug evaluation referral • Progress monitoring • Wraparound services (i.e., Direction Services Community Resource Team)
School Psychologist’s Role in PBIS • Will Vary from Site to Site • Guide SW-Assessment & Improvement Process • Lead Individual Student Problem-Solving Process/Decision Making • Functional Based Assessment & Behavior Support Planning • Tier II & Tier III Intervention, Support, Skill-building
School Psychologist Role (cont.) • Provide leadership • Articulate best practices • Help reduce fear about data • Provide guidance on the importance of consensus building
Data Collection • Data informs practice at the student, classroom, building-level and district-level • Numerous collection instruments • ODR’s by student, location, grade-level, etc. • SW surveys, Teacher reports • Must be meaningful • Will vary depending on school and SWPBIS implementation status