Key Vocabulary • Anthropoids – subgroup of primates • Hominin (Hominid) – • Paleoanthropology – • Bipedal • Brachiate
What does it mean to be human? • Bipedal • Larger brain (capable of language and symbolic thought)Also: • Reduced jawbones • Shorter digestive tract
How determine Bipedalism? • Study of skulls position of foramenmagnum
How determine Bipedalism? • Study of vertebral column: have arched rather than straight spines • Study of pelvic bones Note:Teeth and jaws - rounded rather than rectangular jaws
How determine symbolic thought? • Artifacts tools, and …..….
Ideas to forget! Our biases include: • Thinking that complex brain arose before bipedalism • That “we’re it” with respect to humanityFacts: • Bipedalism appeared first • Several species of humans have existed; many co-existed (Note: Greek Mytholgy!)
3. Anthropoids – monkeys and apes a. New World monkeys – prehensile tails; nostrils on sides b. Old world monkeys – lack a prehensile tail; nostrils point downward
c. Extant non-human groups of apes gibbon orangutan gorilla chimpanzee
2. Australopithecines(genus Australopithecus) • Lived in Africa 4.2 - 1.5 mya • ~ 3 feet (1m) tall • Fully bipedal! • Some finds……
a. Australopithecus afarensis(Lucy!) - 3.2 mya (1) Discovered by Donald Johanson in Ethiopia (1974) (2) 40% complete!
b. A. afarensis footprints found in Tanzania by Mary Leakey (1978)
4. Another lineage of australopiths - robust australopiths (Genus Paranthropus)
Olduvai Gorge (Tanzania) – site of the discovery of Paranthropus boisei by Richard Leakey
IV. Genus Homo – the human line A. Homo habilis (handy man) 2.4 – 1.6 mya 1. Had a large brain 2. Used stone tools
B. Homo ergaster – 1.9- 1.6 mya 1. Substantially larger brain than H. habilis 2. Sexual dimorphism was significantly reduced
C. Homo erectus (upright man) 1. Used stone tools, wore clothes, may have built fires 2. First hominins to migrate out of Africa – 1.8 mya
D. Neanderthals (Homo neaderthalensis) 1. Large thick-browed hominids 2.Lived in Europe, Middle East, and Asia - 200,000 – 30,000 years ago
E. Homo sapiens 1. Appeared in Africa at least 160,000 years ago 2. Analysis of mitochondrial DNA and Y chromosomes suggest that all living humans are descended from common Homo sapiens ancestorswho lived in Africa 200,000 – 150,000 years ago
F. Homo floresiensis “The Hobbits”!! 1. Indonesian island of Flores (discovered 2004) 2. Probably co-existed with modern humans – 95,000 – 13,000 years ago
↑ Brain Size Selected For! Adult cranial capacity(in cm3) • chimpanzees 300-500 • australopithecines 390-545 • early transitional humans 509-752 • modern humans 900-1880
V. Cultural Evolution A. Unique human attributes 1. Language - is controlled by FOXP2 gene 2. Culture – the accumulated knowledge, beliefs, arts, etc. that are transmitted over generations B. Three major stages in human cultural evolution
2. Development of agriculture – 15,000 – 10,000 years ago With agriculture, came permanent settlements and the first cities. Why was agriculture a major factor contributing to the growth of cities?
3. Industrial revolution – 18th century How did the development of technology lead to an explosive growth of the human population?