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pathology PowerPoint Presentation

pathology

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pathology

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  1. pathology

  2. * Recognition(identify) : emphysema • * What you should know about it : -widened air spaces - Ruptured and thinned alveolar septa 1

  3. * Recognition(identify): lobar pneumonia • * What you should know about it : 1- Alveolar capillaries: • 2- Alveolar walls: • 3-Alveolar spaces: Congested Thickened -Lymphocytes -Macrophages -inflammatory cells 2

  4. histology

  5. * Recognition(identify) : Alveoli • * What you should know about it : • 1-Type of epithelium : • if Type I PneumocytesSimple squamous • IfType II Pneumocytescuboidal • 2-Types of cells : terminal bronchioles 1

  6. * Cont Recognition(identify) : Alveoli • 2-Types of cells : • Alveolar macrophages • Pneumocytes : • Terminal bronchioles withclaracells • Divide to regenerate the bronchiolar epith Type I Pneumocytes (Simple squamous) 1- exchange gases. Type II Pneumocytes (cuboidal) 1- secretion of surfactant. 2- divide to regenerate both type I & type II pneumocytes.. 1

  7. * Recognition(identify) : trachea • * What you should know about it : • 1-Type of epithelium : • Pseudo-stratified ciliated columnar epithelium with goblet cells (Respiratory epithelium). • 2-Types of cells : Hyaline cartilage 2

  8. * cont Recognition(identify) : trachea • * What you should know about it : • 2-Types of cells : • Mucosa. • (2) Submucosa • (3) Adventitia. • Epithelium: Pseudo-stratified ciliated columnar epithelium with goblet cells ( basal , brush cells ) • Lamina propria. loose fibro elastic c.t with ( mucus glands , serous glands , lymph nods ) • (3) Elastic lamina: • It is formed of elastic fibers. • Dense fibro elastic c.t with ( mucus glands , serous glands , lymph nods ) (1) Fibroelastic C.T. (2) C-shaped rings of hyaline cartilage. (3) (bundle of smooth muscle fibers) 2

  9. Anatomy

  10. Frontal air sinus Sphenoidal air sinus Nasal septum posterior nasal aperture (Quana ) Nostrils (anterior nares) uvula Vocal cords

  11. Hyoid bone Thyroid cartilage Transverse fissure Trachea Right lung Left lung Oblique fissure Oblique fissure Ribs Diaphragm

  12. left tertiary bronchioles right and left main bronchi right and left secondary bronchi

  13. Alveoli carina Diaphragm

  14. Hyoid bone Thyrohyoid membrane Thyroid cartilage Vocal cords Cricothyroid membrane Cricoid cartilage Epiglottic cartilage

  15. Thyroid cartilage Cricoid cartilage Cricithyroid membrane trachea Tertiary bronchioles Primary bronchi Secondary bronchioles esophagus Descending aorta

  16. Esophageal Opening at T10 central tendon Esophagus left copula right copula openings in the diaphragm : T 8 : IVC opening : T10 : Esophageal opening T12 :Aortic opening Right crus

  17. Thoracic vertebrae lamina Heart shaped body And every thing other than the body isa neural arch

  18. Cont Thoracic vertebrae Transverse process Spine: Horizontal and directed downward pedicle

  19. Cont Thoracic vertebrae lamina Superior demifacet Inferior demifacet

  20. First rib clavicle Manubrium Second rib Body Sternum Costal cartilage Xiphoid process Upper 7 true ribs Typical from 3 to 9 Ribs are classified as Lower 5 false ribs Atypical 1, 2, 10, 11, 12

  21. Anterior side Internal intercostal muscle External intercostal muscle

  22. posterior side Innermost intercostal Muscles

  23. Hyoid bone Epiglottic cartilage Thyrohyoid membrane Thyroid cartilage Corniculate cartilage Arytenoid cartilage Cricoid cartilage

  24. Bronchopulmonary Segments right lung Superior lobe / Apical , Anterior , Posterior meddle lobe / Medial , Lateral Inferior lobe / Apical basal , Medial basal Lateral basal , Anterior basal , Posterior basal Apical Posterior Anterior Apical basal Lateral Medial Anterior basal Lateral basal medial basal Posterior basal

  25. Superior lobe / Apicoposterior ,Anterior , • Sup. lingular , Inf. lingular Bronchopulmonary Segments left lung Inferior lobe / Apical basal , Lateral basal Anteromedial basal , Posterior basal Apicoposterior Anterior Sup. lingular Apical basal Inf. lingular Anteromedial basal Lateral basal Posterior basal

  26. Physiology

  27. * the Answer of question1: (FEV1/FVC)*100= (4.3/4.8)*100=89% NORMAl NOTE:صحيح ان النسبة اعلى من 80ولكن القيم المعطاة في حدود الطبيعي

  28. Q2: The same way =50% من غير تفكير obstructive lung disese النسبة والقيم كلها جدا منخفضة

  29. Q3: The same way =80% هنا ركزوا كويس النتيجة فعلا طبيعية جدا ولكن القيم المعطاة منخفضة جدا restrictive lung disease هيكون عطول الجواب Ex: pulmonary fibrosis

  30. Other causes to have less Chest expansion : Myasthenia gravis Phrenic injury obesity عالاغلب ماهيجي ولكن الاحتياط واجب

  31. FEV1% = (FEV1/FVC) * 100 FVC = 5 هي القيمة التي يكون عندها المنحنى Plateau Plateau FEV1 = 4 هي حجم الهواء الذي خرج عند الثانية الأولى FEV1% = (FEV1/FVC) * 100 = (4/5) *100 =80 % Normal

  32. FEV1% = (FEV1/FVC) * 100 FVC = 2 FEV1 = 1.8 Plateau 1.8 FEV1% = (FEV1/FVC) * 100 = (1.8/2) *100 =90 % Restrictive كيف عرفنا ؟ لان ال أصلا مو طبيعي مره قليل ! FVC = 2

  33. FEV1% = (FEV1/FVC) * 100 FVC = 3.5 Plateau FEV1 = 1.9 1.9 FEV1% = (FEV1/FVC) * 100 = (1.9/3.5) *100 =54 % 3.5 obstructive

  34. Make sure to bring your calculator

  35. Always remember , worrying does not empty tomorrow of its troubles ! But , It empties today from its strength !. Deema , Malak , Nora