What will we study?? • How and why people get sick • Steps for diagnosing an infection • Applying Vitals (Review)
Pathology (Key Terms) • Pathology - the study and diagnosis of disease through the examination of organs, tissues, bodily fluids and whole bodies (autopsy). • Disease– any condition that causes extreme pain, dysfunction, distress, social problems, and/or death
Causes of Disease • 2 broad groups • (1) Infectious Diseases – can spread from one person to another and are caused by microscopic organisms called pathogens that invade the body. A microorganism’s disease-producing power is called its virulence. • Example: West Nile Virus
Causes of Disease • 2 broad groups • (2) Non-infectious diseases – are not communicated from person to person and are not known to involve infectious agents. Some causes include: • Heredity • Lifestyle (diet, stress, etc.) • Example: Diabetes Type II
Body’s Reaction to Disease • Immunity • The condition of being resistant to pathogens and the diseases they cause When these defenses are not functioning properly (poor health, bad nutrition…) people become particularly susceptible to invasion
Body’s Reaction to Disease • When pathogens successfully invade the body, the immune system immediately begins to destroy them • The spleen, lymph nodes, tonsils, thymus, lungs, liver, kidneys and entire lymphatic system gets called into action • Lymphocytes • The specialized white blood cells responsible for combating infectious agents
Do you ever feel like you always seem to get sick at the worst times?? Hmm, why do you think that is the case?
STRESSDid you know…. • 75% to 90% of all visits to primary care physicians are for stress-related complaints • up to 80% of on-the-job accidents are stress-related • 40% of job turnover is due to stress • Stress accounts for $26 billion in medical and disability payments and $95 billion in lost productivity per year • Over 50% of lost work days are stress related which keeps about 1 million people per day from attending work • 75% of employees believe the worker has more on-the-job stress than a generation ago
What is stress? • Stress is your mind and body’s response or reaction to a real or imagined threat, event or change. • The threat, event or change are commonly called stressors. Stressors can be internal (thoughts, beliefs, attitudes) or external (loss, tragedy, change).
Different types of stress Eustress vs. Distress
Eustress Eustress or positive stress occurs when your level of stress is high enough to motivate you to move into action to get things accomplished.
Distress Distress or negative stress occurs when your level of stress is either too high or too low and your body and/or mind begin to respond negatively to the stressors.
Physiological effects of stress on the body Elevated levels of stress hormones are linked to the following: • Obesity • Heart disease • Depression/anxiety • Alzheimer’s disease • Diabetes • Osteoporosis • Fibromyalgia • Chronic fatigue syndrome
Student Stress Rating Scale The following are events that occur in the life of a college student. Place a check in the left-hand column for each of those events that has happened to you during the last 12 months. ___ Death of a close family member - 100 points ____ Jail term - 80 points ____ Final year or first year in college - 63 points ____ Pregnancy (to you or caused by your) - 60 points ____ Severe personal illness or injury - 53 points ____ Marriage - 50 points ____ Any interpersonal problems - 45 points ____ Financial difficulties - 40 points ____ Death of a close friend - 40 points ____ Arguments with your roommate (more than every other day) - 40 points ____ Major disagreements with your family - 40 points’ ____ Major change in personal habits - 30 points ____ Change in living environment - 30 points ____Beginning or ending a job - 30 points ____Problems with your boss or professor - 25 points ____ Outstanding personal achievement - 25 points ____ Failure in some course - 25 points ____ Final exams - 20 points ____ Increased or decreased dating - 20 points ____ Changes in working conditions - 20 points ____ Change in your major ____ Change in your sleeping habits - 18 points ____ Several-day vacation - 15 points ____ Change in eating habits - 15 points ____ Family reunion - 15 points ____ Change in recreational activities - 15 points ____ Minor illness or injury - 15 points ____ Minor violations of the law - 11 points Score: _________________
Interpreting Your Score • Less than 150 points: Relatively low stress level in relation to life events • 150 – 300 points: Borderline Range • Greater than 300 points: High stress in relation to life events
I’M IN CONTROL – DISTRESS RELIEF STRATEGIES Feeling good about yourselves can be an effective buffer against stress. Eliminate unnecessary worries. Most worries are either passed on to us by another or conjured up in our imagination. GET PHYSICAL Relax neck and shoulders Take a stretch Get a massage EXERCISE! GET MENTAL Count to 10 Control your thoughts Fantasize Congratulate yourself Ignore the porblem if appropriate, after evaluation Perform self maintenance Talk to a counselor GET SPIRITUAL Meditate Pray Remember your purpose USE YOUR BODY AND MIND TOGETHER Take a break Get hug therapy Try progressive relaxation Try yoga Try aroma therapy Laugh or Laughter Yoga DEVELOP NEW SKILLS Prioritize daily tasks Learn something Practice a hobby
More Strategies • “What is Stress” Web Site: http://www.teachhealth.com • “How to reduce and relieve stress” Web Site: http://www.family.com • “Stress Relievers” Web Site: http://www.residentassistant.com
Group work time! • Work in groups of 4 and answer the following questions on chart paper Be prepared to share your answers with the class • List the top 10 causes of teen stress • Define what nutrition means to you • Define what exercise means to you • How can proper nutrition and exercise help manage stress? • Why is it important to consider proper nutrition and exercise when studying pathology? • Consider what you know about Canadian's health care system, do you think we are headed towards a healthy future? What changes would you like to see, if any, within our health care system here in Ontario?