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  1. Truman A whole lot of Foreign Policy

  2. Beginnings of the Cold War • Early 1945, center is on Poland • Who would rule in Poland? • What would the Polish boundary be? • The Soviet puppet Lublin government was recognized as the leaders of Poland • At the Yalta conference, Stalin agrees to unfettered and free elections. He never had it in mind to act on it • Stalin shut the West and 4 freedoms out of East Europe

  3. Cold War intellectual Kennan • “opposed to denazification policy” because Germans would soon join US in opposition to Soviet Union • No need for US- Russia post-war collaboration • Only need was clear definition of sphere of influence and Russia would never expand their area of hegemony

  4. Truman • Does not like the do-nothing attitude toward Stalin • Truman demanded free elections in Poland • Stalin argues that Poland borders Russia, not the US or Great Britain • Stalin stated that he was not consulted with the formation of governments in Belgium or Greece

  5. Truman • Decides on hard-line but it was always verbal • Decides on economic pressure to get compliance with the US • Orders end to lend-lease that countermands it after Stalin becomes upset • Shocking to do this before USSR declares war on Japan • Stalin will build economy from the backs of its people and take industry from Germany

  6. Cold War defeat • Truman is faced with recognizing Polish government backed by Stalin or break relations with Soviet Union • Truman decides to recognize Polish government • Many see this as first major Cold War defeat for the United States

  7. Potsdam • Major issue was Germany • Agreement to split Germany into 4 regions with a military commander in charge of each region • These commanders would form the Allied Control Council (ACC) – they would work out the details of reunification which need unanimity. • Problem: France and USSR wanted a weakened Germany – Great Britain and US wanted a united self-sufficient Germany. The reason Germany was not reunited earlier.

  8. Potsdam • Russia would also receive 25% industrial capacity from west Germany in exchange for 15% of agriculture from east Germany • Russia got a carte blanche for its occupied zones • Truman came away from meeting with understanding that Russia only understood force and Japan would only be occupied by the US with MacArthur as commander

  9. The Bomb • Gave Truman an awesome sense of power • The bomb could fight the cold war without sacrificing US citizens, a judicious use of finances, and its threat could shape the world in the US favor • Problem: bombs of 1945-1949 could not destroy the USSR • Stalin could match the destruction of Moscow with the take-over of Western Europe

  10. Tension in the Middle East • Stalin would not withdraw troops from Iran because he wanted oil concessions • Russia initiates rebellion in northern Iran to influence events • Russia leaves with formation of Iranian-Soviet oil company • In 1947, the Iranian parliament rejected the company and it was a defeat for the Soviets

  11. Turkey • August 1946, Soviets wanted equal access to the straits • Truman tells Turks to stand strong that the US would back them up, even sending a carrier group to the area • Soviets back down

  12. Stalin • Becomes wary of US and Great Britain after Fulton, Missouri March, 1946 speech by Churchill in which he said an Iron Curtain had descended across Eastern Europe • Pulls out of World Bank and IMF. • Put more pressure on Iran • Announced a new five-year plan to make the Soviet Union self-sufficient in the event of war • Intense campaign to remove western influences inside the Soviet Union

  13. Acheson-Lilienthal Plan • Called for international control of atomic energy • Keep the Soviets from getting one and in a series of stages destroy the atomic bombs the US possessed. • Never realized because the US felt the bomb was the only weapon that could hold back the Soviets