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Plant Parts

Plant Parts

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Plant Parts

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  1. Plant Parts Just like humans, plants have systems and subsytems that enable them carry out necessary processes.

  2. Each plant part - root, stem, leaf - has a specific role in keeping the plant alive through photosynthesis

  3. Leaves (page 2) - mainsite of photosynthesis Equation – 6CO2 + 6H2O + energy  C6H12O6 + 6O2 - cross section - epidermis – adaptation for terrestrial life - waxy cuticle - stomata - transpiration

  4. Layers of a Leaf Epidermis- top layer- 2 structures adapted for photosynthesis 1. Waxy cuticle- waterproof layer, coats the part exposed to air. Conserves water by slowing evaporation. 2. Stomata- pores or holes in epidermis that allow for gas exchange. They are on the underside of the leaf. A guard cell surrounds the stomata to open or close.

  5. Leaves Parts of the Leaf- Blade- flat broad section, largest part of leaf Veins- tubelike structures which carry water, minerals and sugar throughout the blade Petiole- short stalk that connects the leaf to the stem Veins enter through the petiole. It provides support, enables transport of fluids between the blade & stem - simple or compound (see identifying leaves ppt) - pinnately or palmately compound - alternate or opposite if compound - pinnate or palmate venation

  6. Stems (page 3) Support and transport Contains: Xylem- transports water in a plant (moves up from roots) Phloem- transports sugars produced in photosynthesis (from leaves to rest of plant) Modified: Strawberry runners onion potatoes

  7. Stems (page 3) 4 Categories- based on size, shape, & kind of stem 1. plant-(herbaceous) nonwoody, soft tissue 2. shrub- usually more than one trunk at base 3. vine- slender, woody but need support 4. tree- woody, strong stems, trunk, branches Herbaceous plant shrub vine

  8. Stems – cross sections through a dicot and a monocot

  9. Roots (page 4) Function – absorption, storage, anchorage Root hairs – extensions of the epidermis that increase absorption by increasing surface area; see photo Fibrous rootsTap roots

  10. Root Structure

  11. Nitrogen fixation – occurs in the roots and in the soil around the roots of plants; performed by bacteria

  12. Vocabulary for Roots Primary growth – increase in length; stems get longer, roots grow deeper Meristem – tissue that is growing Apical meristem – tissue found at the tips of roots and stems that is actively dividing/growing

  13. A f l o w e r i s : • A h i g h l y m o d i f i e d b r a n c h . • T h e f l o w e r p a r t s a r e m o d i f i e d l e a v e s . • A n o r g a n o f s e x u a l r e p r o d u c t i o n .

  14. S e p a l s & Petals • Sepals: • F i r s t p a r t g r o w i n g f r o m r e c e p t a c l e . • P r o t e c t s t h e d e v e l o p i n g f l o w e r i n t h e b u d . Petals: are B r i g h t l y c o l o re d t o a t t r a c t p o l l i n a t o r s . Considered “nonessential”

  15. P i s t i l : F e m a l e O r g a n • S t y l e - t h e h o l l o w t u b e l e a d i n g t o t h e o v a r y . • O v a r y - develops into a fruit • O v u l e s - w h e r e e g g s • are p r o d u c e d . • S t i g m a - t h e o p e n t o p o f t h e p i s t i l .

  16. S t a m e n :M a l e O r g a n • A n t h e r • P r o d u c e s t h e p o l l e n . • F i l a m e n t S u p p o r t s t h e a n t h e r . Anther Filament

  17. P o l l i n a t i o n • T r a n s f e r o f p o l l e n f r o m a n a n t h e r t o a s t i g m a . • S e l f - P o l l i n a t i o n : s a m e p l a n t . • C r o s s - P o l l i n a t i o n : d i f f e r e n t p l a n t s o f t h e s a m e s p e c i e s .

  18. P o l l i n a t i o n • V e c t o r s o f P o l l i n a t i o n • W i n d • A n i m a l s • Water

  19. S e e d s (page8) • A “ p a c k a g e d “ p l a n t . • C o n t a i n s t h e p l a n t e m b r y o a n d n ou r i s h m e n t f o r t h e n e w p l a n t .

  20. Vocabulary Seed – adaptation to terrestrial life composed of a plant embryo, stored food, and a protective coat

  21. Plant Responses (page 8) Plant responses are called tropisms. Tropisms can be positive or negative. They include phototropism, gravitropism, and thigmotropism. Most plant responses involve the action of hormones, including gibberellins, auxins, and ethylene.

  22. FRUITS (page 9) • Houses and protects seeds in flowering plants • Examples: peaches, oranges, tomatoes, walnuts, bananas

  23. Fruit or Veggie Humans eat lots of different plant parts. A fruit is the ripened ovary and contains seeds. Therefore, tomatoes, peppers, squash, olives, and cucumbers are fruits, not vegetables.

  24. Vegetables – the vegetative parts of the plants that we eat. Includes: • Roots – carrots, turnips,radishes • Stems – celery, bok choi, rhubarb, garlic, • broccoli, onions, potatoes • Leaves – lettuce, cabbage, parsley • Seeds – pinto beans, peas, sunflower seeds, • corn, pepper corns, rice, pecans, coconut • Flowers – anise flowers (licorice), basil;

  25. Monocots & Dicots (page 10) Textbook – pg. 570

  26. We don’t just eat plants, we also wear them, build with them, and use them for medicines!