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Data Collection & Analysis

Data Collection & Analysis

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Data Collection & Analysis

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  1. Data Collection & Analysis Presented by David Martin, Behavior Consultant, CMCSS

  2. Schedule • 8:00 – 9:30 Work • 9:30 – 9:50 Break • 9:50 – 11:30 Work • 11:30 – 12:45 Lunch • 12:30 – 1:30 Work • 1:30 – 1:45 Break • 1:45 – 3:00 Work

  3. Materials • Thank you to the author of, Behavioral Assessment and Program Evaluation, 2007 • Dr. Jose Martinez-Diaz The majority of material in the presentation was taken from his book. • Dr. Patti Wilson Some of the data collection forms came from her collection.

  4. Goals of the In-Service • Review Target Behaviors • Review Response Classes • Discuss Fundamental Properties and Dimensional Quantities of behavior • Data Collection and Display • Discuss Data and Response Measures Continuous and Discontinuous Measures • Selecting and Using Response Measures

  5. Activity - Pretest • Which are examples of target behaviors? • Aggression • Biting others • Spitting on others • Non-Compliance • Following teacher directions • Low Self-Esteem • Social Skills • Thinking • Off-Task • On-Task • Showering Place your answers aside and we’ll return to them later.

  6. Do We Have To? Really? • Goals are data-driven • Data tells us if what we are doing is working • Because everyone likes to see an effect – especially students  • Data is the key to perfecting a plan • Data provides objectivity vs. subjectivity

  7. Yes. We Have to. BUT KEEP IT SIMPLE! • Mechanisms should be simple and convenient Rate Use of a timer (latency, duration, etc.) + or – point rankings (0, 1, or 2) • Establish a baseline • Set a timeframe for the intervention(s) and an attainable goal • Revise goal/interventions as necessary

  8. Identifying Target Behavior • A target behavior is any defined, observable, and measurable behavior which is the focus of analysis and intervention.

  9. Identifying Target Behavior • The behavior of an organism is that portion of the organism’s interaction with the environment that is characterized by detectable displacements in space through time of some part of the organism and that results in a measurable change in at least one aspect of the environment. Johnston & Pennypacker, 1980

  10. Identifying Target Behavior • Behavior is the movement of an organism or its parts in a frame of reference provided by the organism or various external objects or fields. Skinner, 1938

  11. Identifying Target Behavior • The interaction of the muscles and glands of a live organism and the environment. Martinez - Diaz

  12. Identifying Target Behavior • What do they all have in common? • Observable • Measurable • Interaction with the environment • Change in the environment

  13. Identifying Target Behavior • Examples of Non-Behavior Anorexia Depression Positive Attitude Repressed Feelings Poor Impulse Control Non-Compliance Lazy Defiant Disrespectful

  14. Identifying Target Behavior • The Dead Man’s Rule If a dead man can do it, it is not behavior!

  15. Identifying Target Behavior • A private event is something that we cannot see or measure – it is not behavior. Examples: Thinking is a private event Feeling is a private event Some argue that reading is a private event

  16. Activity - Pretest Behavior: 2 3 5 11 • Which are examples of target behavior? • Aggression • Biting others • Spitting on others • Non-Compliance • Following teacher directions • Low Self-Esteem • Social Skills • Thinking • Showering

  17. Activity Get with five people close to you. Go over each non-behavior on the pretest. Identify why it is not considered behavior. Change each non-behavior item into observable, measureable language that could be used to develop a target behavior. Be ready to report out.

  18. Things I Need to Do… Reflect on a student you have had, or will have that emitted behavioral problems. If you identified a non-behavior as the problem, take a minute to change that language into target behavior language. Write the new language on your Things I Need to Do List. Options: You may want to consider a referral you’ve written, a behavior plan, or even a note or phone call to a parent.

  19. Identifying Response • A response is a SPECIFIC instance of behavior • However, behavior is a collective term. We don’t say: “Three yelling behaviors” or “Four Face slapping behaviors”

  20. Identifying Response • Response Cycle A response cycle refers to the beginning, middle and end of a response. Examples: Holding one’s breath under water Face-slapping behavior Exiting a computer game Getting paper out for a test

  21. Identifying Response • Topographical Response Class A topographical response class refers to the physical nature of responses. That is: the exact shape of the response, the appearance of the response, the force of the response, and the actual movements involved.

  22. Identifying Response • Topographical Response Class So a topographical response class is a group of two or more responses that share a common form. Examples: Pointing Hand to Face Movements Hair Pulling

  23. Identifying Response • Functional Response Class A functional response class is a group of two or more topographically different responses that all have the same effect on the environment, usually producing a specific class of reinforcers.

  24. Identifying Response • Functional Response Class So a functional response class is a group of two or more responses that serve the same purpose. Examples: Attention-Getting Behaviors Food-Getting Behaviors Task-Escape Behaviors

  25. Activity In the next three minutes, on a scrap piece of paper, list as many task-escape behaviors as you can. These should be behaviors you have observed (or emitted).

  26. Things I Need to Do… • You have just created a functional response class for task-escape. • When you identify target behavior, you need to do this for whatever the target behavior might be. So, if a child wants attention, you identify all the behaviors in an attention seeking functional response class that this child emits. • On your list, write the name of a student for whom an FBA/BIP is scheduled. Write the name of the student and a reminder to identify the functional response class (after function has been identified) to be included in the FBA/BIP.

  27. Fundamental Properties of Behavior A property is a fundamental quality of a phenomenon A dimensional quantity is a quantifiable aspect of a property. Dimensional Quantities of Behavior

  28. Fundamental Properties of Behavior A response occurs in time. More precisely, a response occurs at a certain point in time in relation to a preceding environmental event. So temporal locus (the point where a response is situated in time) is a fundamental property.

  29. Dimensional Quantities of Behavior The accompanying dimensional quantity of temporal locus is latency, which is the amount of time between a stimulus (asking someone to do something) and the response (starting to do it). We measure latency.

  30. Fundamental Properties of Behavior A second fundamental property of a single response is derived from the fact that a response also occupies time, thus the property of temporal extent (how much time the response takes).

  31. Dimensional Quantities of Behavior The accompanying dimensional quantity of temporal locus is duration, or the amount of time from the beginning to the end of a response cycle. We measure duration.

  32. Fundamental Properties of Behavior A third fundamental property of a single response is repeatability through time. It refers to the fact that a response can reoccur.

  33. Dimensional Quantities of Behavior Countability is the dimensional quantity associated with repeatability, which is measured as the number of responses, or number of cycles of the response. We measure frequency.

  34. Fundamental Properties of Behavior The fundamental property of a response class is the combination of repeatability and temporal locus. From this combination, we get more dimensional quantities.

  35. Dimensional Quantities of Behavior Inter-response time (IRT) refers to the time between two successive responses; usually the time elapsed between the end of one response cycle and beginning of the next response cycle. We measure IRT.

  36. Dimensional Quantities of Behavior Rate of responding is the ratio of the number of responses over some period of time. Many of us confuse rate and frequency. They are NOT the same thing. We measure rate.

  37. Dimensional Quantities of Behavior Rate is the fundamental datum in the study of behavior. Its unit of measurement is cycles per unit of time. So…three cyclers in one hour is: 1 per 20 minutes.

  38. ACTIVE STUDENT RESPONDING Active Student Responding is a research-based strategy to keep students engaged in the lesson. Enjoy the Activity! 

  39. ACTIVE STUDENT RESPONDING • A single response can reoccur, thus the fundamental property of: • Repeatability • Temporal Extent • Temporal Locus

  40. ACTIVE STUDENT RESPONDING • A single response can reoccur, thus the fundamental property of: • Repeatability • Temporal Extent • Temporal Locus

  41. ACTIVE STUDENT RESPONDING • A single response occurs at a point in time, thus the fundamental property of: • Repeatability • Temporal Extent • Temporal Locus

  42. ACTIVE STUDENT RESPONDING • A single response occurs at a point in time, thus the fundamental property of: • Repeatability • Temporal Extent • Temporal Locus

  43. ACTIVE STUDENT RESPONDING • Which dimensional quantity is associated with temporal extent? • Countability • Duration • Latency • Intensity

  44. ACTIVE STUDENT RESPONDING • Which dimensional quantity is associated with temporal extent? • Countability • Duration • Latency • Intensity

  45. ACTIVE STUDENT RESPONDING • Which dimensional quantity is associated with repeatability? • Countability • Duration • Latency • Intensity

  46. ACTIVE STUDENT RESPONDING • Which dimensional quantity is associated with repeatability? • Countability • Duration • Latency • Intensity

  47. ACTIVE STUDENT RESPONDING • Which dimensional quantity is associated with temporal locus? • Countability • Duration • Latency • Intensity

  48. ACTIVE STUDENT RESPONDING • Which dimensional quantity is associated with temporal locus? • Countability • Duration • Latency • Intensity

  49. ACTIVE STUDENT RESPONDING • IRT and Rate share which fundamental properties? • Repeatability and Temporal Extent • Repeatability and Temporal Locus • Temporal Extent and Temporal Locus

  50. ACTIVE STUDENT RESPONDING • IRT and Rate share which fundamental properties? • Repeatability and Temporal Extent • Repeatability and Temporal Locus • Temporal Extent and Temporal Locus