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Communicating Effectively

Communicating Effectively

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Communicating Effectively

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  1. 9 Communicating Effectively

  2. Learning Outcomes • Identify the factors that influence communication. • Discuss how communication can be distorted and misunderstood. • Choose which communication mode to use depending on the message and the relationship.

  3. Learning Outcomes • Explain how communication strategies vary according to the situation and those involved. • Improve your collaborative communication skills. • Develop a plan to enhance your communication skills.

  4. Factors that Influence Communication • Participant's past conditioning • The situation • Each person's purpose in the communication • Attitudes toward self, the topic, and one another

  5. Successful Communication • Clear message • Careful listening • Monitoring responses • Providing feedback

  6. Causes of Distorted Communication • Metacommunications • Oral messages accompanied by nonverbal messages • Intrasender conflict • Nonverbal communication can distort the meaning of the spoken words • Intersender conflict • Person gets conflicting messages from different sources

  7. Other Causes of Distorted Communication • Using inadequate reasoning • Using strong, judgmental words • Speaking too fast or too slowly • Using unfamiliar words

  8. Other Causes of Distorted Communication • Spending too much time on details • Busy or distracted recipient • Previous negative experience with sender • Biased perception of message or sender

  9. Causes of Email and Texting Miscommunications • Speedy replies • Sending message to wrong person • Reply to all

  10. Gender Differences in Communication • Men and women communicate differently • Using gender-neutral language helps bridge the gap between men's and women's ways of communicating • Men and women can improve their ability to communicate with one another

  11. Generational and Cultural Differences in Communication • Generational differences affect communication styles • Cultural attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors also affect communication • Misunderstanding results from people's lack of understanding of one another's cultural expectations

  12. Generational and Cultural Differences in Communication • Personal and professional cultural enrichment training is recommended • What applies to one individual will not be true for everyone else in that culture

  13. Organizational Culture • Customs, norms, and expectations within an organization shape behavior • Poor communication can be a source of job dissatisfaction • Violating the organization's communication rules can result in repercussions

  14. Modes of Communication • Messages may be oral or written and sent by mail, email, or fax • Purpose of the message determines the best mode to use • The more important or delicate the issue, the more intimate the mode should be • Conflict or confrontation is also usually best handled in person

  15. Levels of Intimacy in Descending Order • In person • On the telephone • Voicemail • Email, instant messaging, and texting • Memos, faxes, and written mail • Posting on social media, including blogs

  16. Different Levels of Formality • Applying for a job • Conveying the time and place of an upcoming meeting • Nominating a coworker for an award • Communicating with a family member

  17. Directions of Communication • Downward • Manager to staff • Upward • Staff to management, or lower to middle or upper management • Lateral • Between individuals or departments at same level

  18. Directions of Communication • Diagonal • Individuals or departments at different levels • Grapevine • Rumors and gossip

  19. The Role of Communication in Leadership • Leaders who engage in frank, open, two-way communication are seen as informative • Communication is enhanced when the manager listens carefully and is sensitive to others

  20. The Role of Communication in Leadership • A major underlying factor is an ongoing relationship between manager and employees • Successful leaders are able to persuade others and enlist their support

  21. Communicating with Employees • Good communication is the adhesive that builds and maintains an effective work group • Giving direction • Know the context of the instruction • Get positive attention • Give clear, concise instructions • Verify through feedback • Provide follow-up communication

  22. Communicating with Administrators • Working effectively with an administrator is important because this person directly influences personal success in a career and within the organization • Managing a supervisor is a crucial skill for nurses

  23. Communicating with Administrators • Managing upward is successful when power and influence move in both directions • Understand the superior's position from her or his frame of reference

  24. Influencing Your Supervisor • Nurses need to approach their supervisor to exert their influence on a variety of issues and problems • Timing is critical; consider the impact of your ideas on other events occurring at that time

  25. Communicating with Your Supervisor • Taking a problem to your supervisor • Go with a goal to problem-solve together • Have some ideas about solving the problem • Keep an open mind

  26. Communicating with Your Supervisor • Negative inquiry • "I don't understand" • Fogging • Agreeing with part of what was said • Negative assertion • Accepting some blame

  27. Communicating with Coworkers and Medical Staff • Coworkers • Can provide support; there may also be competition or conflicts • Should interact on a professional level

  28. Communicating with Coworkers and Medical Staff • Medical staff • Relationship of physician and nurse has been that of superior and subordinate • Have considerable power because of their ability to attract patients to the organization

  29. Communicating with Patients and Families • The patient (and family) are the principal customers of the organization • Handle complaints and concerns tactfully and expeditiously • Lawsuits can be avoided if the patient or family feels that someone has taken the time to listen to their complaints

  30. Communicating with Patients and Families • Most individuals are unfamiliar with medical jargon • Maintain privacy and identify a neutral location for dealing with difficult interactions • Make a special effort to find an interpreter if a patient or family does not speak English • Recognize cultural differences

  31. Supporting Collaboration with Medical Staff for Patient Care • Respect physicians as persons, and expect them to respect you • Consider yourself and your staff equal partners with physicians in health care • Build the staff's clinical competence and credibility • Actively listen and respond to physician complaints as customer complaints

  32. Supporting Collaboration with Medical Staff for Patient Care • Use every opportunity to increase your staff's contact with physicians • Establish a collaborative practice committee on your unit • Serve as a role model to your staff in nurse-physician communication • Support your staff in participating in collaborative efforts by your words and actions

  33. Four Ways that Generate Power • With words • Use the other person's name frequently • Use strong statements • Avoid discounters, clichés, and fillers • Through delivery • Be enthusiastic • Speak clearly and forcefully

  34. Four Ways that Generate Power • Through delivery • Make one point at a time • Do not tolerate interruptions • By listening • For facts, emotions, and what is not being said

  35. Four Ways that Generate Power • Through body posture and language • Sit next to antagonist; turn 30 degrees to address that person and lean forward • Expand your personal space • Use gestures; smile when pleased, not to please • Maintain eye contact, but do not stare

  36. Improving Communication Skills • Consider your relationship to the receiver • Craft your message • Be clear about your goal • Think about how the receiver might respond

  37. Improving Communication Skills • Decide on the medium to use • Check your timing • Be prepared when you deliver your message

  38. Improving Communication Skills • Attend to responses • Reply appropriately • Conclude when messages are understood • Evaluate the process