Learning! Psychology Ms. Rebecca
Do Now: • What are some good habits you have? Ex: Brushing your teeth after eating, exercising, eating healthy, doing homework etc… http://4.bp.blogspot.com/_kDyMtZ_dJwQ/SYvvRA0CxAI/AAAAAAAAAo8/Vw1igQ5G_MU/s400/cat_lime_helmet.jpg
Learning • Anything we are born NOT knowing how to do must be learned. • Ex: reading, walking, talking…. http://logos.simpleplants.com/Schools-Education/thumbs/Schools-Education-Cartoonville-Learning_ABCs.gif
How do we learn things? • Many different ways: • Watching others • Reading books • Trying something new…. http://www.wallpaperez.net/wallpaper/children/Childrens-Day-learn-696.jpg
Classical Conditioning • We learn to do something or not to do something based on a stimulusand a response to that stimulus.
Stimulus • Something that produces a reaction. http://www.babble.com/CS/blogs/strollerderby/chocolate_chip-cookies.jpg
Response • The reaction a person or animal has to something (stimulus). http://scott.club365.net/uploaded_images/drooling_homer-712749.gif
Another Example: • You really like a song on the radio. Every time you hear that song you feel happy and you want to dance. http://images.paraorkut.com/img/pics/glitters/m/music-8762.jpg
Example Continued • Stimulus: Music • Response: feeling happy and wanting to dance.
Classical Conditioning • Learning to respond to a stimulus in a certain way.
Example: • When we eat food, it’s normal for our mouths to produce saliva to digest the food. This is NOT a learned behavior.
BUT • It is NOT normal to produce saliva when we are simply SMELLING food because we don’t need to digest smells. http://s3.images.com/huge.2.13308.JPG
Classical Conditioning • The reason that you drool or make saliva when you smell delicious food is because you are classically conditioned to do this.
Classical Conditioning • We have learned that when we see and smell delicious food nearby, we will probably get a chance to eat it, which will require saliva. http://blog.americanfeast.com/images/eating-disorder.jpg
2 Stimuli become associated with one another • Stimulus 1: Smell of food • Stimulus 2: Eating food
Ivan Pavlov Rings a Bell • Dogs learned from experience that when Pavlov rang a bell, they would be fed.
Ivan Pavlov Rings a Bell • The dogs learned to salivate when they heard the bell, because they associated the bell with being fed.
Ivan Pavlov Rings a Bell • Stimulus 1: Being Fed • Response 1: Salivating • Stimulus 2: Bell Ringing • Response 2: Salivating http://www.big-dog-clothing.com/wp-content/uploads/2008/12/dog-food1.jpg
But it’s not called Stimulus/Response 1 and 2… • Unconditioned Stimulus • Unconditioned Response • Conditioned Stimulus • Conditioned Response • Note: Things that are conditioned must be learned
Unconditioned Stimulus • Stimulus that caused as AUTOMATIC response that doesn’t need to be learned. • Ex: When the dogs were fed they naturally salivated.
Unconditioned Response • The response to an unconditioned stimulus. • Ex: When the dogs were fed they naturally salivated.
Conditioned Stimulus • Something that normally doesn’t cause the response it causes AFTER conditioning. • Ex: The ringing of a bell
Conditioned Response • A learned response to a stimulus that used to be meaningless. • Ex: The dogs salivating after they hear a ringing bell (Conditioned Stimulus).
Adapting to the Environment • Why is classical conditioning important in nature? • It helps animals to learn to survive in their environment. http://kecute.files.wordpress.com/2008/03/cat-attack.jpg
Adapting to the Environment • Ex: A bunny learns to run away when it smells or sees cats nearby. http://lh3.ggpht.com/mjbmeister/SGcrKHNDKQI/AAAAAAAAH_w/zWA8DM9Wws0/s400/cat-paw-under-door.jpg
Adapting to the Environment • Humans may learn to get out of the house if they smell smoke, even if they don’t see fire. http://www.abc.net.au/reslib/200811/r316745_1404358.jpg
Taste Aversion • learned avoidance of a certain type of food. • Ex: You eat so much ice cream you throw up. You won’t want to eat ice cream again for a while.
Why are taste aversions important? • They can save lives! Sometimes when foods make us sick, it is because they are poison and we shouldn’t eat them. Ex: Alcohol! http://www.brainandspinalcord.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/2009/10/alcohol.jpg
Extinction • When a conditioned stimulusno longer is followed by an unconditioned stimulus, it will lose its ability to create a conditioned response. http://www.lansing.lib.il.us/images/j0422315.jpg
Ex: • Conditioned Stimulus: Your car alarm goes off and it is stolen • Conditioned Response: You freak out whenever you hear the alarm go off on your NEW car
After a while • You learn that the car alarm goes of ALL THE TIME and it hasn’t been stolen in YEARS. • You stop freaking out when you hear the car alarm. This is Extinction.
Same thing happened with the dogs • Pavlov stopped giving the dogs food after he rang a bell. • After a while, the dogs stopped salivating when they heard the bell.
Spontaneous Recovery • BUT Extinction may not last forever. • For a few days, Pavlov did not ring the bell AT ALL. THEN, he rang the bell and the dogs salivated again. But not as much.
Spontaneous Recovery • If your car alarm doesn’t go off for a long time, and then suddenly it does, you may freak out a little bit, even if your car hasn’t been stolen.
Another example: • Perfume or Cologne of someone you loved. http://www.overstockdrugstore.com/product_images/c/012044007105.jpg
Generalization • Responding the same way to stimuli that are similar. • Ex: If you throw up after eating a gallon of chocolate ice cream you probably will avoid other flavors of ice cream too in addition to chocolate ice cream.
Discrimination • BUT people still respond differently to stimuli that are NOT similar. • Ex: You can’t eat ice cream for a while but chocolate cake is different enough from ice cream to be ok to eat.
How does classical conditioning help people? • It can help people get over fears of things and situations.
2 ways to help reduce fears: • 1. Flooding • 2. Systematic Desensitization
1. Flooding • A person is forced to be around the thing that they fear. • Ex: If you are afraid of heights, you may be forced to look out a 6th story window until you are no longer upset about it.
Problem with flooding: • People who are really afraid of something would HATE being forced to be around the thing they fear. It may be difficult to get someone to face their fear like that.
2. Systematic Desensitization • People are taught ways to relax when facing a fear. They are GRADUALLY exposed to the things they fear while being helped to relax.
Example: • People who are afraid of spiders may be shown pictures of spiders and are helped to relax. http://www.white-hat-web-design.co.uk/images/spider.jpg
Example continued • Gradually they are shown real spiders at a distance and helped to relax.
Example continued • Finally, the spiders may be brought closer and closer while using the same relaxation techniques until the person is no longer afraid.
Pros and Cons: • Systematic Desensitization is easier for patients than Flooding BUT it can take a LONG time. http://school.discoveryeducation.com/clipart/images/clock.gif
Another way to get over a fear: Counter conditioning • A pleasant stimulus is paired with something someone is afraid of. http://oakhurstveterinaryhospitalca.com/assets/faq/67/RESPONSESUBSTITUTION2.jpg
Counter conditioning example: • A child who is afraid of shots is given candy while they are at the doctor. The good experience of eating the candy my cancel out the fear of shots. http://www.momlogic.com/images/pediatrician-candy-kid-270.jpg
Review Question • Read the following situation and write which parts are the: • 1. Unconditioned Stimulus • 2. Unconditioned Response • 3. Conditioned Stimulus • 4. Conditioned Response
Situation • Whenever you see your boyfriend or girlfriend you want to kiss them. You love everything about them. You especially like the way their perfume or cologne smells. Eventually, just smelling the perfume or cologne they wear makes you want to kiss them.