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  1. URBANIZATION “Cities have always been the fireplaces of civilization, whence light and heat radiated out into the dark, cold world.” - Theodore Parker

  2. Suburbanization Infrastructure Edge city Planned communities

  3. Central-place theory World cities Primate city

  4. Bid-rent theory CBD (central business district) Zoning Commuter zone

  5. Ghetto Gentrification Postindustrial city High-tech corridors


  7. CHARACTERISTICS OF URBANIZATION Transportation • Access to water routes more important prior to railroads • NYC, Pittsburgh, San Francisco • Fall Line cities – NYC, Philadelphia, Washington DC, Richmond Va., Columbia SC, Columbus Ga.

  8. CHARACTERISTICS OF URBANIZATION • SITE – the physical characteristics of a specific area • Originally located for commerce and defense • peninsulas and islands for earliest cities (Venice, Paris) • hills useful because of defense and drainage (Rome)

  9. CHARACTERISTICS OF URBANIZATION • Access to fresh water • domestic consumption • level of industrialization, standard of living, and population growth

  10. CHARACTERISTICS OF URBANIZATION • Geological character - Manhattan Island on stable bedrock - Venice, Los Angeles, Mexico City are on earthquake and flood plains

  11. CHARACTERISTICS OF URBANIZATION • SITUATION – relative location of a place • Mumbai, India – adjacent to cotton fields • Birmingham, England – near coal deposits • Johannesburg, South Africa – centrally located around diamond mines • Houston, Tex. – near oil fields in Gulf of Mexico • Chicago, Ill. – major manufacturing adjacent to Corn Belt

  12. CHARACTERISTICS OF URBANIZATION • SITUATION – relative location of a place • Situation can change over time – + discovery of new resource + construction of new recreational lake - change in transportation patterns - agricultural areas effected by drought

  13. FUNCTIONS OF A CITY • Jobs and Services • Residential • Trade and Commerce • Manufacturing • Public Administration • Personal Services

  14. IMPACT OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION ON URBANIZATION • Urbanization has nearly doubled every 50 years since 1800 • Mechanization has brought an increased flow of migrant labor • England was the first place in world history to have more urban dwellers than rural dwellers (1850) • In 1800, Paris was only European city on mainland to exceed 500,000; by end of century Paris, Berlin, Vienna, St. Petersburg, and Moscow all over 1 million!

  15. METROPOLITAN DEVELOPMENT IN USJOHN BORCHERT • Sail – Wagon Epoch (1790-1830) • Atlantic coastal communities oriented toward Europe • Boston, NYC, Philadelphia have only small domestic hinterlands • Iron Horse Epoch (183-1870) • Crude national railroad network • Railroads converged with internal waterways • Chicago, Detroit, Cleveland St. Louis develop

  16. METROPOLITAN DEVELOPMENT IN USJOHN BORCHERT • Steel-Rail Epoch (1870-1920) • Rapid development of iron and steel industries • Rapid industrial growth within Northeast and Midwest • Auto-Air-Amenity Epoch (1920-present) • Complex highway and air transportation • Improved amenities and speed led to increase suburban development • Sunbelt migration

  17. Bid Rent Theory Related to the “gravity model” and “distance decay.”

  18. Edge Cities

  19. Walter Christaller Node Central Place Theory Spatial distribution of cities/service centers is a hexagon w/CP in the middle

  20. PRIMATE CITY STATUS A country’s leading city is always is proportionately large and exceptionally expressive of national capacity and feeling. The primate city is commonly at least twice as large as the next largest city and more than twice as significant. - Mark Jefferson

  21. PRIMATE CITY STATUS Not all countries have a primate city • India – New Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Bangalore • China & Brazil – Beijing, Shanghai, Sao Paulo, Rio de Janeiro

  22. RANK-SIZE RULE • The second and subsequent smaller cities should represent a proportion of the largest city. The second city would be ½ the size of the largest city; the third largest city would be 1/3 of the size, etc. - George Zipf

  23. RANK-SIZE RULE • Paris (2.2 million) v. Marseilles (800,000) • London (6.9 million) v. • Birmingham (1 million) • Mexico City (9.8 million) • v. Guadalajara (1.7 million)

  24. MEGALOPOLIS • Jean Gottman (1950s) • 300 mile stretch of BosWash • Greek for “very large city” • Inter-linked relationships between a variety of culturally and political urban areas

  25. MEGALOPOLIS • Initially colonial settlements from the 1400’s and grew into villages, then cities, and now urban areas • As time progressed, the need for tight communication between Boston and Washington increased dramatically • Currently contains 17% of the country’s total population in only 1.5% of the total area of the country

  26. MEGALOPOLIS • Economic activity, transportation, commuting, and communications linkages are most important • Government center, banking center, media center, academic center, immigration center, clothing manufacturing, cultural center • 40% of all commercial international air-passenger departures have Megalopolitan origins • 30% of American export trade passes through the ports of Megalopolis

  27. PRIMATE CITY of the World • New York, New York • The City That Never Sleeps!


  29. World Systems theory economic core economic periphery HDI

  30. Globalization international division of labor transnational corporation NAFTA

  31. economic activities commodity chains Outsourcing maquiladoras

  32. Weber’s Least Cost Theory industrial location Bid Rent theory time-space compression

  33. GROWTH AND DIFFUSION Industrial Revolution – w,w,w,w,h


  35. LOCATIONAL ADVANTAGES • Location theory helps explain the spatial positioning of industries and their successes or failures • Transportation, labor, energy, infrastructure costs are all a part in the location of heavy industries

  36. LOCATIONAL ADVANTAGES • Weber’s least-cost theory • Growth or decline of industries are influenced by political and environmental fluctuations

  37. GROWTH AND DIFFUSION • Global industrial pattern dominated by the first countries that industrialized • Evolution of 3 economic cores and peripheries

  38. GROWTH AND DIFFUSION • North American manufacturing complex is the largest in the world today • Asian Pacific Rim is the fastest growing industrial region in the world today

  39. LEVELS OF DEVELOPMENT • Enormous gaps between rich and poor, both globally and regionally • Underlying economic disparities is a core-periphery relationship among different regions of the world

  40. LEVELS OF DEVELOPMENT • 21st century opened with some countries stuck in the primary sector whereas some were pushing the quaternary sector • Rapid development is usually associated with democracy, but some are growing under authoritarian regimes as well

  41. CONTEMPORARY PATTERNS • Spatial organization of world economy

  42. ECONOMIC RESTRUCTURING • Declining cost of transportation and communication led to enormous changes in tertiary sector in 20th century • Technology is accelerating the pace of life

  43. ECONOMIC RESTRUCTURING • Deindustrialization in core has led to growth of labor intensive manufacturing in the periphery • International labor has increased globalization leading to both positive and negative impacts





  48. CRITIQUES OF MODELS • Immanuel Wallerstein’s World Systems Theory • Core • Semi-periphery • Periphery

  49. CRITIQUES OF MODELS • Alfred Weber – Least Cost Theory • #1 cost in industrial location… transportation of raw materials to factory as well as finished product to market • Cost-minimizing and Profit-maximizing theories have their impact as well