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Learning to be Good: How we grow up. Pages 91-94 A.P. 382-386 . Objectives . List the Individuals associated with Moral Development : list the 3 stages Define Empathy and who’s research focused on it
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Learning to be Good: How we grow up Pages 91-94 A.P. 382-386
Objectives • List the Individuals associated with Moral Development : list the 3 stages • Define Empathy and who’s research focused on it • Compare and contrast the 4 PARENTING STYLES including Power assertion and Induction parenting
chapter 3 Moral reasoning:Kohlberg’s theory Preconventional level Punishment and obedience Instrumental relativism Conventional level Good boy–nice girl Society-maintaining Postconventional level Social contract Universal ethical principles
Preconventional stage • Children focused on making decisions most likely to avoid punishments • Moral reasoning is limited to how choices effect themselves
Conventional stage • Move past personal gain or loss, look through others eyes • Make choices based on how others will view them • Learn conventional standards of what is right and wrong from their peers, parents, media and so on. • May try to follow these standards so others will see them as good
Post conventional • Person evaluating moral choice examines the rights and values involved in the choice • Self defined ethical principals; a personal conviction to uphold justice, might be involved in this choice • Merit of altruism or limiting certain rights for the good of the group.
Lawrence Kohlberg • Based on Piaget’s view. Kohlberg study’s thinking • Moral Dilemmas- moral reasoning, Right and Wrong • Kohlberg says development; cross-cultural, same stages, same order. • Turkey, Taiwan, Guatemala, Japan and U.S in the study • Most studies show no significant sex differences in moral reasoning
Lawrence Kholberg Cont… • Moral reasoning YES, • Also Lying, cheating, cruelty AND the cognitive ability to reason those actions • F.E. I punched his lights out because he grabbed my wife’s tush • That’s a nice shirt, (when you hate it…tactful) • he’s not cheating on you (he is) lying for friend • or he is cheating(when he’s not) trying to hook up • Ever cheat on a test? 92% of you have. Me too
MORAL SENSEObjective 2 • Jerome Kagan- 1984 • Empathy-take another persons point of view • Not only behave and obey rules because they are afraid of punishment BUT BECAUSE they know right from wrong • By 5 know how to do the right thing and obey orders • Inborn
Kagen believed… • Socialization- Human capacity, Behavior in society • Therefore inborn like language(Genetics) • HOWEVER Nurture is also a factor • your environment, your experience, how YOUR PARENTS treated you are a factor in moral sense .
chapter 3 Teaching moral behavior Power assertion Parent uses punishment and authority to correct misbehavior. Users tend to be authoritarian. Induction Parent appeals to child’s own resources, abilities, sense of responsibility, and feelings for others in correcting misbehavior. Users tend to be authoritative.
Hypothetically you did something wrong…Parenting style • Spanked? • Shout, threaten you? • Explain the error of your ways? • Most common parenting • Power assertion (1. Authoritarian) • Threats, physical punishment, depriving the child of privileges because bigger, stronger, more powerful
Components of Authoritarian • Power assertion child obeys but only when the parent is present; child often feels resentful • Family atmosphere of anger quarreling, constant correcting of children • Teach children aggression • Set strict standards for behavior • Obedient attitudes valued more than discussion • Punishments for undesired behavior WAY MORE than Reinforcement for desired behavior
On the other hand…Induction (2.Aurhoritive) • Parent appeals the child’s empathy, helpful nature, affection for others and responsibility • Childs actions could hurt someone • “you made Doug cry, it is not nice to bite.” • “You never poke someone in the eye because you could hurt them seriously • As a result Best test scores, least jail • High expectations, goals, show how to meet them
Compare and contrast authoritarian/Authoritative • Set consistent standards for children behavior BUT… standards are reasonable • Discussed when old enough to understand them • Encourage independence but not gross violation of rules • Praise as often as punish
Permissive #3 parenting style • Let children do anything they want • Or uninvolved or not concerned • Warm to child but may spoil the child • Parent makes few or no demands often out of place to help children's self esteem • Parent permits child to make decision prematurely
Components of Permissive • Don’t set clear guidelines • Rules constantly change or not enforced consistently • Feel get away with anything • 15 min. late…reaction unpredictable • They may not notice, not seem to mind, threaten with punishment not follow through on.
Non involved • #4 Uninvolved-Parent is emotionally detached, withdrawn and inattentive • Parents make few or no demands • Lack interest or expectations for child • Parent is indifferent to child’s decisions and point of view
Summary • Psychologists associated with moral reasoning • Describe the 4 Parenting styles