Federalist vs Anti-Federalist, the first political parties The Federalist Supported Ratifying the Constitution. Lead by Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, James Madison Wrote the Federalist papers, meant to inform public about the Constitution, now regarded as legal arguments by the founders. The Anti-Federalist Were against ratifying the Constitution, they felt it gave the states and people too little power. Lead by Samuel Adams and Patrick Henry They wrote the Anti-Federalist papers Their pressure lead to the creation of the Bill of Rights and the formal Amendment process. The Federalist and Anti-Federalist were the first examples of what political tradition?
The ratification process 9 out of the 13 states had to approve for the Constitution to become the new plan of government. The Delegates first signed the Constitution and next took it to the current congress. Next, the delegates with the endorsement of the congress took it to their state legislatures. Many states took a long time to debate the Constitution and some refused to sign with an amendment process or a Bill of Rights. Delaware was the first state to sign, followed by PA.
Amendment Process States level National level Proposal Ratify 3 / 4 of state legislatures 2/3 vote from each house of congress (26/27) (1/27) 3 / 4 of state conventions A National Convention called by 2/3 of State legislatures How does the Amendment process reflect the constitutional principle of Federalism? Even though there are only 27 formal changes, how else has the Constitution been changed?
Bill of Rights 1st 10 Amendments Ratified December 15th, 1791 Meant to protect the rights of the people and the states 1. Freedom Expression 6. Rights of the accused 2. Right bear arms 7. Right to a trial by jury 3. Quartering troops 8. No cruel and unusual punishment, or excessive bails 4. No unreasonable search and seizures 9. No denying of rights 5. Due process 10. Powers reserved How is life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness reflected in the Bill of Rights? Can you name or describe any other famous amendments?
Judicial Review “The constitution, on this hypothesis, is a mere thing of wax in the hands of the judiciary, which they may twist and shape into any form they please.” - Thomas Jefferson The idea that the Supreme Court can determine if the actions of the other two branches are constitutional Established in 1803 with the case Marbury v. Madison Self given power of the Supreme Court In many cases this has lead to the practice of Judicial Activism or using the bench to legislate. Should there be a check on the decisions rendered by Supreme Court Justices? If not, why? Is yes, create a plan.
“A Republic if you can keep it”- voting and pluralism In order for a republic to survive people must vote. The founding fathers created a system that protected against voter in difference. In the United States people generally favor one issue over others and often these people will donate money to that cause. It is these special interest groups that often provide money for political campaigns.
Unwritten Powers National Government VS State Government Power given= Article I section 9, power denied to national government Power given= expressed powers Article I section 8, #’s 1-18 What about unwritten powers? The National Government claims according to Article I section 8, #18 – “The Necessary and Proper clause” leads to implied power. Although the founding fathers didn’t specifically mention the powers in the Constitution it is implies The States claim that according to Amendment 10 all unwritten power is “Reserved” to the states The is a Loose interpretation The is a Strict interpretation
Unwritten Powers Article II. Section 1 “The Executive Power shall be vested in a President of the United States of America.”
Unwritten Powers The Judicial Branch Originalism and Judicial Restraint Vs. Judicial Activism “A living document”