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The Holocaust

The Holocaust

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The Holocaust

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  1. The Holocaust Andrea Richardson & Alicia Smith

  2. Adolf Hitler “Once I really am in power, my first and foremost task will be the annihilation of the Jews…until all Germany has been completely cleansed of Jews.” • Adolf Hitler http://www.librarising.com/astrology/celebs/images2/A/adolfhitler.jpg

  3. The Holocaust • 1933-1945 • The term “Holocaust” refers to the Nazi’s persecution of the Jewish people • Targeted Jews, Gypsies, Homosexuals, Jehovah’s Witnesses, and the Disabled • Ethnic cleansing of anyone that did not fit Hitler’s idea of a perfect race.

  4. What was the most difficult part of being a child during the Holocaust?

  5. Was it Having to Wear a Badge?

  6. Wearing a Badge • Yellow Star of David with the word Jude in the middle • November 23, 1939 • Jews 10-years old or older • September 1, 1941 • All Jews were required to wear the yellow Star or arm band http://www.holocaustcentermilwaukee.org/images/children_star.jpg http://4.bp.blogspot.com/_ys4yaY-ijmk/Sr3HL6chgpI/AAAAAAAAAGI/1r7Lc5P9Ngc/s400/yellow_badge.jpg

  7. Wearing a Badge • Made them a target of violence and humiliation He who wears this symbol is an enemy of our people. http://www.geschichteinchronologie.ch/judentum-aktenlage/hol/EncJud_judenstern-d/008-kleber-jude-ist-feind-unseres-volkes.jpg

  8. Wearing a badgecaused fear. • I had no choice but to wear the star. • Delia Van Haren http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/media_ph.php?lang=en&ModuleId=10007295&MediaId=6222 www.holocaust.com.au/jn/images/pic_peter.gif • The yellow badge was a kind of stamp. • A stamp that distinguished me from • the rest of the population. Anyone • could approach me, tell me, do to me • whatever they wanted.” • JuttaSzmirgeld, age 12

  9. Was it Being Segregated and Excluded?

  10. Segregated from the general public and excluded from parks Jews: Entry is Forbidden Sign at the entrance of a park Jews go to the left, non-Jews to the right. Sign on a streetcar Images from: http://www.eilatgordinlevitan.com/krakow/krkw_pages/krkw_ghetto.html

  11. Excluded from School • November 15, 1938 • All Jewish children are expelled from public schools. • Segregated Jewish schools are created. Diary Entry: During the war, I’ve been studying by myself, at home. When I remember that I used to go to school, I feel like crying. • David Rabinowitz, August 1940 http://atlasshrugs2000.typepad.com/atlas_shrugs/2009/04/theworldforgets-on-remembrance-day.html

  12. Excluded from Neighborhoods • Forced to live in ghettos http://lifeboat.com/images/jewish.ghetto.jpg

  13. The Ghettos Images from: www.eilatgordinlevitan.com/krakow/krkw_pages/krkw_ghetto.html

  14. v Diary Entry: When I look at the barbed wire that separates us from the rest of the world, my soul longs for freedom—like a bird in a cage. My eyes are filled with tears. I envy those birds that can fly freely. When I write these words my heart breaks and I see images from the past. Will I ever live in better times? Who knows? It’s a difficult question. May God help us. Will I be with my parents and friends after the war? Will we have enough bread and rye flour? Right now the starvation is at its peak. Once again we have nothing to cook…. Everybody wants to live. —Anonymous girl, March 6, 1942, the ódz ghetto in Poland http://www.ushmm.org/lcmedia/photo/lc/image/51/51733.jpg http://www.docstoc.com/docs/3426769/AN-EXHIBITION-OF-THE-UNITED-STATES-HOLOCAUST-MEMORIAL-MUSEUM-WASHINGTON http://www.kosherdelight.com/GermanyHolocaustChildrenPoland.gif

  15. Was it Hiding From the Nazi Army?

  16. Hiding in the Sewer Krystyna and her brother PawelekChiger lived for 14 months in a sewer, never seeing the light of day. • Later we headed for the sewer. It was very wet and dark. I was very scared and I was shaking, but I tried to be calm and only asked Daddy if we still had far to go. There were stones with yellow worms crawling all over. We put all our things over the stones and sat on top of them. It was awful there. Water seeped from the walls and it smelled bad. I saw large, red rats which ran by us just like chickens. At first I was very afraid, but later I got used to it. My little brother, Pawelek, was not scared at all. • KrystynaChiger Krystyna, 7 years old Pawelek, 3 years old http://www.adl.org/children_holocaust/story_krystyna.asp

  17. Hiding Alone Often, families were torn apart. In a desperate attempt to save their children, parents made the agonizing decision to leave their little ones with strangers. And, frequently, children were left to fend for themselves, wandering through forests and villages in search of food and shelter. http://www.ushmm.org/lcmedia/photo/lc/image/89/89473.jpg

  18. Hiding Under a Different Religion • Thousands of Jewish children survived the Holocaust because they were protected by people and institutions of other faiths. • Children quickly learned to master the prayers and rituals of their “adopted” religion in order to keep their Jewish identity hidden from even their closest friends. http://z.about.com/d/history1900s/1/0/t/5/children7.jpg http://www.gexweb.com/Holocaust/inside/images/SisterHuberte.jpg

  19. Hiding Under a Different Religion I was 4 years old and my brother was 5-1/2 years old when we were first separated from our parents and placed in a Protestant orphanage in Belgium. I was a depressed and confused child, but with the passing of time, I began to believe that all children lived away from their parents. • LiliSilberman Lili& Charles Silberman with their Mother http://www.adl.org/children_holocaust/beyond_tears1.gif http://www.adl.org/children_holocaust/beyond_tears2.jpg

  20. Was it Living in a Concentration Camp?

  21. Concentration Camps • Life within Nazi concentration camps was horrible. • Prisoners were forced to do hard physical labor and yet given tiny rations. • Prisoners slept three or more people per crowded wooden bunk (no mattress or pillow). • Torture within the concentration camps was common and deaths were frequent. http://library.thinkquest.org/12663/media/img/children.jpg http://library.thinkquest.org/07aug/00841/HOLOCAUST/holocaust%20pics/holocaust2.jpg

  22. Children Were Often Killed First • Because children were generally too young to be deployed at forced labor, German authorities generally selected them, along with the elderly, ill, and disabled, for the first deportations to concentration camps, or as the first victims led to mass graves to be shot. • Upon arrival at Auschwitz-Birkenau and other killing centers, the camp authorities sent the majority of children directly to the gas chambers where they were killed by poisonous gases. Children being led to the gas chambers. http://www.scrapbookpages.com/auschwitzscrapbook/2005Photos/GasChamberClose-up.jpg

  23. Physicians and medical researchers used a number of children, including twins, in concentration camps for medical experiments that often resulted in the deaths of the children. • Concentration camp authorities deployed adolescents, particularly Jewish adolescents, at forced labor in the concentration camps, where many died because of conditions. http://robertbonnett.files.wordpress.com/2009/06/nazi-camp1.jpg

  24. References • Slide 8 • www.chgs.umn.edu/museum/exhibitions/fragments/theStar.html • www.ushmm.org/wlc/article.php?lang=en&ModuleId=10007295 • Slide 11 • http://www1.yadvashem.org/yv/en/remembrance/2009/theme.asp • Slide 14 • http://www.docstoc.com/docs/3426769/AN-EXHIBITION-OF-THE-UNITED-STATES-HOLOCAUST-MEMORIAL-MUSEUM-WASHINGTON • Slide 18 • http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Holocaust/hidden.html • Slides 3 and 21 • http://history1900s.about.com/od/holocaust/a/holocaustfacts.htm • Slides 22 and 23 • http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/article.php?lang=en&ModuleId=10005142 • Slides 16, 17, 19 • http://www.adl.org/children_holocaust/story_beyond_tears.asp