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The Holocaust

The Holocaust

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The Holocaust

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  1. The Holocaust Museum of History & Holocaust Education MUSEUM OF HISTORY AND HOLOCAUST EDUCATION • KENNESAW STATE UNIVERSITY• historymuseum.kennesaw.edu

  2. Part 3: Understanding the Holocaust: Primary Source Analysis – Questions Observe What is happening in this photograph? Reflect Who do you think took this photograph? Why? Who do you think was the audience for this photograph? When do you think it was taken? Question How does this picture make you feel?

  3. The Holocaust What do you know?

  4. Why did Germans elect Adolf Hitler in 1933? To help improve the economy. To remove the shame of losing World War I. To help make Germany great again. 1933

  5. 1933 – The First Concentration Camp Dachau, Opened March 1933 for Political opponents 1933

  6. May 10, 1933 – Book Burnings 1933

  7. Propaganda 1933

  8. The Nuremberg Laws1935 1935 1933

  9. The Nuremberg Laws1935 The Nuremberg Race Laws of 1935 deprived German Jews of their rights of citizenship, giving them the status of "subjects" in Hitler's Reich. "The Law for the Protection of German Blood and German Honor" (regarding Jewish marriage) and "The Reich Citizenship Law" (designating Jews as subjects). 1935 1933

  10. Other Groups were also targeted Gypsies (Roma) Communists Political Opponents Mentally and Physically handicapped individuals Many others 1935 1933

  11. Life for Jews in Nazi Germany • Could not own houses or businesses • Removed from their jobs as lawyers, doctors, and civil servants • Were harassed, arrested, and sometimes put in prison • Were not allowed to pray, go to temple, or practice Jewish customs • Were not considered citizens by German law. Nazi sign boycotting Jewish-owned businesses 1935 1933

  12. Attacks on Jews The Night of Broken Glass. Called “Kristallnacht” in Germany – November 1938 1935 1938 1933

  13. Analyzing Primary Sources

  14. Attacks on Jews Jews were fined 1 billion Reichsmarks to repair the property damage and restore cleanliness to the German streets. In the following 10 months, 115,000 Jews emigrated from the Reich. 1935 1938 1933

  15. Attacks on Jews These attacks were widely reported in the news. Front page of the New York Times On November 11, 1938 1935 1938 1933

  16. 1939 - World War II began September 1, 1939 Germany invaded Poland. 3 million Jews lived in Poland. 1935 1938 1939 1933

  17. Europe - 1939 1935 1938 1939 1933

  18. Europe - September 1939 1935 1938 1939 1933

  19. Europe 1940 1935 1938 1939 1933

  20. Jews Removed from Society – The Ghettos 1935 1938 1939 1933

  21. Resistance 1935 1938 1939 1933

  22. Resistance In some ghettos, members of Jewish resistance movements staged armed uprisings. The largest of these was the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising in spring 1943. 1935 1938 1939 1933

  23. The Final Solution:The Wannsee Conference On January 20, 1942, 15 high-ranking Nazi Party and German government officials gathered at a villa in the Berlin suburb of Wannsee to discuss and coordinate the implementation of what they called the "Final Solution of the Jewish Question." 1942 1935 1938 1941 1939 1933

  24. Tightening the Noose:The Einsatzgruppen • By the spring of 1943, the Einsatzgruppen and Order Police battalions had killed over a million Soviet Jews and tens of thousands of Soviet political commissars, partisans, Roma, and institutionalized disabled persons.

  25. The Camp System There were over 40,000 camps in the German system (transit camps, work camps, concentration camps, and extermination camps) 1933-1941 – Arrested and sent to prisons and concentration camps 1942-1945 – Arrested, transported to camps and killed in extermination camps 1942 1935 1938 1941 1939 1933

  26. Extermination Camps • Auschwitz-Birkenau (opened May 1940, Poland) • Majdanek (opened Oct. 1941, Poland) • Chelmo (opened Dec. 1941, Poland) • Belzec (opened 1942, Poland) • Sobibor (opened 1942, Poland) • Treblinka (opened 1942, Poland) 1942 1935 1938 1941 1939 1933

  27. The End of the War and Holocaust - 1945 2nd May 1945 – German forces in Berlin surrender 4th May 1945 – All German troops throughout Europe surrender World War II ended in Europe but left millions of people homeless and without jobs, food, or money. As the Allied troops advanced through Europe they liberated the camps. 1942 1935 1938 1941 1939 1933 1945

  28. Conclusion • Between 1933 and 1945 over 6 million Jewish people and 5 million others were murdered by the Nazi Party • The murder of these 11 million people is called the Holocaust General Dwight D. Eisenhower tours the liberated Ohrdruf concentration camp, April 12, 1945 “I made the visit deliberately, in order to be in a position to give first-hand evidence of these things if ever, in the future, there develops a tendency to charge these allegations merely to ‘propaganda.’” 1942 1935 1938 1941 1939 1933 1945