4-6. Leadership Paradigms SLP(E) Course
Contents • What is Leadership? • Leadership Theories. • Leadership & Followership.
What is Leadership? Leadership Paradigms
What is leadership? “One of the most observed & least understood phenomena on earth” JamesBurns (1978). "A leader shapes and shares a vision which gives point to the work of others." Charles Handy (1992). "A leader takes people where they want to go. A great leader takes people where they don't necessarily want to go, but ought to be." Rosalynn Carter, US First Lady (b.1927) . "Be willing to make decisions. That's the most important quality in a good leader." General George S. Patton Jr. "As we look ahead into the next century, leaders will be those who empower others." Bill Gates. 3
What is leadership? • Can you feel leadership? • Emotion | Relationship. • Can you describe leadership? • Process. • Can you define leadership? • Phenomenon (Fact or situation that exists). • Can you measure leadership? • Activity.
EtymologyOrigin of word & use • Old German ‘Lidan’ | TO GO. • Old English ‘Lithan’ | TO TRAVEL. • To show the way, to guide. • To cause to act, think, feel or behave in a certain way. • To initiate action. • To go at the head. • The principal role.
Leadership References Google: 496,000,000 Hits Amazon: 45,746 Books
Leadership ‘words’ Understands environment inspire example visionary privileged team Understands people Variety of styles no prescription situation personality and character understands him/herself compulsion transform persuasion people
Leadership MANAGEMENT LEADERSHIP Command Authority Discipline Power Influence
Leadership Definition Leadership is visionary; it is the projection of personality & charactertoinspire the team to achieve the desired outcome. There is no prescriptionfor leadership and no prescribed styleof leader. Leadership is a combination of example, persuasion & compulsion dependent on the situation. It should aim to transform & be underpinned by individual skills and an enabling ethos. The successful leader is an individual who understandshim/herself, the organisation, the environment in which they operate & the people that they are privileged to lead.
Command, Leadership & Management Command Relationship? Leadership Management 5
Command • Position of authority & responsibility. • Legally appointed. • Leadership & management are key components. • Commanders are not leaders until their position has been ratified in the hearts & minds of those they command.
Management • Allocation & control of resources (human | materiel | financial) to achieve objectives. • Capability to deploy a range of techniques & skills to plan, organise & execute the business of defence.
Command Authority LEADERSHIP LEADERSHIP • MANAGEMENT • Stuff • Numbers Positional Power Personal Power
Leadership vs Management • ‘Leaders conquer the context…. managers surrender to it. • The manager administrates; the leader innovates. • The manager focuses on systems and structures; the leader focuses on people. • The manager relies on control; the leader inspires trust. • The manager has a short-range view; the leader has a long range perspective. • Managers do things right; leaders do the right things.’ Warren Bennis | 1994
Leadership & Management Relationship Change LEADERSHIP Inspiration Empowerment Personal strength & Sensitivity Recognition & support Team Building Articulate vision & values Innovative challenge MANAGEMENT Behaviours & styles Example Decisiveness Planning Analysis Training Monitoring Evaluation Organisation Control Maintenance Systems & processes
Dr Eric Schmidt | Chairman & CEO Sergey Brin President of Technology Larry Page President of Products
“…Managers are necessary: Leaders are essential…. Leadership is of the spirit, compounded of personality & vision…… Management is of the mind, more a matter of accurate calculation, statistics, timetables & routine…” Field Marshall Bill Slim (1944) About People About Things
Learning Leadership • Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics 340BC. • Written for son Nicomachus. • How problems dealt with depends upon how they are interpreted. • Learning of leadership: • Not just a body of theoretical knowledge | episteme& • Not just captured by replicable skills | techné but • Also practical wisdom | phronesis.
Leadership Development Leadership is a skill. Some people have more natural talent, but… Skills can be developed through practise. What to practise & how? Leadership Models 8
Leadership Theories Leadership Paradigms
Utility of Theory • ‘It (theory) does not necessarily require to be a direction for action …it is an analytical investigation of the subject that leads to an exact knowledge…it then becomes a guide…it lights up the road for him (sic), facilitates his progress, educates his judgement and shields him from error…each person in succession may not have to go through the same labour of clearing the ground and toiling through the subject…it should educate the mind of the future leader…or rather guide him in his self instruction but not accompany him to the field of battle’. Carl Von Clausewitz. On War
Leadership Thinking • Can be separated into two traditions: • The Great Man Tradition: • Opinions of gurus, generals & former CEOs. • The Academic Tradition: • Empirical research, largely from the US.
Leadership Thinking • Great Man Tradition: • Entertaining but unscientific. • Academic Tradition: • Scientific but often difficult to understand or see the immediate relevance. • Considerable differences between the disciplines.
Evolution of management theory The Classical Perspective The Behavioural Perspective The Quantitive Perspective Scientific Management Administrative Management Human Relations Movement Organisational Behaviour Management Science Operations Management 1933 300 BC 1911 1950-60s Henri Fayol Elton Mayo F W Taylor The Gilbreths Gantt Emerson Maslow McGregor Likert Leadership Theory Mary Parker Follett Integrating Perspectives Contemporary Management Thought Systems Perspective Contingency Perspective Integrating Framework Type Z Model Excellence Business process Re-engineering
... ... Evolution of Leadership theory The Great Man Theory Motivational Theory Trait Theory Universal Theories Jenkins 1947 Stogdill 1948 Goldbach 1985 Homer Asoka Confucius Plato Aristotle Machiavelli Ohio State Research 1950’s Michigan State University-R Likert 1961/67 Blake & Moulton ‘Managerial Grid’ 1964 Mayo’s Hawthorn Studies 1933 George Homans 1950 Maslow’s hierarchy of Needs 1954 McGregor’s X&Y Theory 1960 Fredrick Herzberg 1959/66 Chris Argyris1970 Thomas Carlyle 1850s Sir Francis Galton 1869 Servant leadership theory The Contextual/Behavioural Factor The Functional Approach The Situational Approach Power & Influence Theory Robert Greenleaf Stogdill R Tannenbaum & WH Schmidt19 58/73 VH Vroom & PW Yetton 1973 Hersey & Blanchard 60’s - 93 JRP French & BH Raven 1959 BM Bass 1960 A Edzoni 1961 JP Kotter 1982 Hersey & Blanchard 1985 John Adair Contingency Theory Transformational Theory Participative Leadership & Decision Making Theory Charismatic Leadership Theory Contemporary Thinking RJ House 1976/77 JM Burns 1978 BM Bass 80s-90s G Yukl 1970/80s F Fiedler 1970s
Trait Theory 12
Trait Theory • Traits • Adaptable to situations. • Alert to social environment. • Ambitious & achievement-orientated. • Assertive. • Cooperative. • Decisive. • Dependable. • Dominant (desire to influence others). • Energetic (high activity level). • Persistent. • Self-confident. • Tolerant of stress. • Willing to assume responsibility. • Skills • Clever (intelligent). • Conceptually skilled. • Creative. • Diplomatic and tactful. • Fluent in speaking. • Knowledgeable about group task • Organised (admin ability). • Persuasive. • Socially skilled. Stogdill | 1974
Universal Theories Team Committed people; linked through common stake in organisation’s purpose. Trust & respect. Country Club Focus on needs of people for satisfying relationships leads to a comfortable, friendly atmosphere & work tempo High Middle-of-the-Road Adequate performance possible by balancing work with maintaining moral at a satisfactory level. Concern for people Medium Authority Compliance Efficient operations by arranging work conditions so that human elements interfere as little as possible. Impoverished Exertion of minimum effort to get required work done to sustain organisation. Low High Low Medium Concern for task
Adair’s Functional Approach Task Context Team Individual Areas of need
Transactional/Transformational Leadership Transactional leaders: BUY followers. Transformational leaders: INSPIRE followers.
Transactional Leadership • An exchange of inducements between leader & led for fulfilment of tasks: • Contingent Reward. • Management by Exception. • No mutuality or pursuit of a higher purpose. • Not likely to be enduring. • Realisation of goals thro’ meeting ‘wants’. • Honesty, fairness & honouring of commitments.
Transformational Leadership • Transcends self interest for good of group | long term not short term needs | aware of what is really important: • Concerned with end values: liberty, justice, equality. • Charismatic leadership or Idealized Influence. • Inspirational Motivation. • Individualised Consideration. • Intellectual Stimulation | higher plane of arousal • Change to Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. • Most likely to emerge in times of stress & change.
Situational Approach (high) Supporting Coaching High Task & High Relationship High Relationship & Low Task Relationship Behaviour Delegating Directing High Task & Low Relationship Low Relationship & Low Task (low) (high) Task Behaviour Maturity of Followers
Context/Style of Leadership • Visionary: when a new vision is required. • Coaching: connects personal needs with organisational goals. • Affilliative: to heal rifts in the team | people come first. • Democratic: to build buy in | get valuable input. • Pacesetting: lead by example. • Commanding: in a crisis | to kick-start a turnaround.
Goleman’s Leadership Styles Coercive Authoritative Affiliative Democratic Pace-setting Coaching Crisis Change Heal rifts Get buy-in Quick results Improve performance Use the ‘style’ to meet the challenge 15
Authentic Leadership Psychological Self Philosophical Self Thoughts & values Self Awareness Ethical Virtue Authentic Leadership Actions & behaviours Self Regulation Ethical Actions http://www.keyleadership.com/Downloads/Authentic%20Leadership%20Development%20.pdf
Leadership & Followership Leadership Paradigms
Toxic Leadership “ Destructive leaders are focused on short-term mission accomplishment. They provide superiors with impressive articulate presentations and enthusiastic responses to missions. But they are unconcerned about, or oblivious to, staff or troop morale and/or climate. They are seen as self serving” Anon, Staff College Discussion
Toxic Leadership • Bright, energetic individuals with a reputation for ‘getting the job done’. • Strategic issue: ‘not normally addressed until there is a public spectacle’ • EQ attributes: • Arrogant | self centred | ultimately dysfunctional. • Insensitivity. • Uncontrolled ambition.
Sources of toxicity at work • Intention: Malice. • Incompetence: Weakness. • Infidelity: Betrayal. • Insensitivity: Emotional unintelligence. • Intrusiveness: Charismatic control. • Institutional: Policies & practices. • Inevitability: Leadership | trauma | jolts.
Political Behaviour Baddeley & James