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Arctic Land Surface Hydrology:

Arctic Land Surface Hydrology:. Moving Towards a Synthesis. Princeton University December 4-6, 2006. Session Overview. Introduction Project Overviews NEESPI: Terrestrial Water and Energy Cycles NEESPI: Changing Lake/Wetland Extent and Carbon Balance NSF: Arctic Synthesis

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Arctic Land Surface Hydrology:

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  1. Arctic Land Surface Hydrology: Moving Towards a Synthesis PrincetonUniversity December 4-6, 2006

  2. Session Overview • Introduction • Project Overviews • NEESPI: Terrestrial Water and Energy Cycles • NEESPI: Changing Lake/Wetland Extent and Carbon Balance • NSF: Arctic Synthesis • Overarching science questions among projects?

  3. An integrated understanding of the terrestrial water and energy cycles across the NEESPI domain through observations and modeling • Eric Wood, Princeton University • Laura Bowling, Purdue University • Alexander Oltchev, Severtsov Institute of Evolution and Ecological Problems • with N. Speranskaya, K. Tysentko, N. Lemeshko, A. Sogavchev, N. Tchevakova, J. Kurbatova, N. Vygodskaya, A. Varlagin, and O. Panferov

  4. Primary Science Question • How have changes in climate, land cover and water management in northern Eurasia over the last half-century affected the land surface hydrology and flood frequency, and what are the impacts at regional to continental scales?

  5. Subsidiary Science Questions • To what extent can observed changes in seasonal discharge be attributed to land use change and water management versus climate variability? • What are the effects of anthropogenic activities such as water and land management on water and energy fluxes across the NEESPI domain and how are they compounded by the presence of permafrost, snow, and wetlands? • How well can hydrologic processes related to permafrost, land and wetland hydrology, and impacts from land cover change and water management be represented by our VIC LSM and how can it be improved through the synthesis of local field data and remote sensing observations? • How does the hydroclimatology of the NEESPI region relate to continental and global water and energy cycle processes?

  6. Work Plan • Model improvements • Data preparation & analysis • Model testing and evaluation • Retrospective reconstruction of water & energy balance • Large-scale diagnostic and teleconnection studies (Bartalev et al., 2003)

  7. Modeling • Improved modeling of wetlands and lakes to deal with thaw lakes • Retrospective reconstruction of water and energy balance (1950-2000) • Project future water and energy balance and the implications for water resources

  8. Data Sets • Ground-based observations • Soil moisture, evaporation, snow melt • Tower flux data from the Upper Volga catchment in the Central Forest Biosphere Reserve • Meteorological Forcing Data • 50-year, 1-degree, observation-based data set developed at Princeton and the University of Washington • GLDAS for near real-time simulations • ERA-40 Reanalysis

  9. Data Sets • Satellite Data • Understand the state of the land surface (snow extent, freeze/thaw process) • Provide inputs to terrestrial water-energy modeling (land cover and its change) • Evaluate/validate the VIC model simulations through snow extent and its evolution

  10. Temperature Precipitation Soil Moisture SWE -0.6 0 0.6 Strong positive correlation at high latitudes and southern US -0.6 0 0.6 Correlation of DJF average states with CRU NAO index Large Scale Diagnostic & Teleconnection Studies

  11. Collaborative research: Understanding change in the climate and hydrology of the Arctic land region, synthesizing the results of the ARCSS Fresh Water Initiative Projects • Eric Wood • Dennis Lettenmaier • John Cassano • Charles Vörösmarty

  12. Science Questions • How do changes in arctic land processes affect the climate of the region? • What are the implications of these changes for the arctic hydrologic cycle (including coupling and feedbacks with the atmosphere)? • What are the impacts of changes in the arctic freshwater system on global climate?

  13. Science Questions • How can the results from the FWI studies be used to better understand the hydrologic processes affecting observed change in the freshwater balance of the pan arctic land system? • To what extent are the observed changes in Arctic terrestrial hydrologic cycle due to imported change from other regions (via atmospheric processes), and to what extent are the observed terrestrial hydrologic changes exported to the atmosphere and to the ocean system?

  14. Scientific Perspective Figure 1: Time series of discharge of the Yenesei and Ob Rivers over the last 50 years.

  15. Conflicting Explanations for Discharge Trends

  16. FWI Projects of Interest

  17. FWI Projects of Interest

  18. Approach • Arctic-RIMS • VIC with Cold Land Updates • University of Washington Multi-Model Ensemble Prediction System • Regional Climate Models • Polar MM5 / WRF • UVic Earth System Climate Model

  19. Work Plan • Enhancement of Artic-RIMS with model integration output • Workshops & Chapman Conference • Evaluate and improve hydrologic parameterizations using FWI data • Uncoupled, partially coupled, and fully coupled regional model feedback studies • Global simulations to evaluate teleconnections associated with arctic freshwater change • Exploratory 21st century scenario analysis

  20. Arctic-RIMS

  21. Science Questions Where they intersect

  22. Crossover Areas • Lake/wetland extent and effect on hydrology • Permafrost active layer depth • Effect on wetlands & carbon • Effect on land surface hydrology • Changes in land surface hydrologic processes & their effect on the region’s climate • Land cover changes

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