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Chapter 2 Analyzing Orgs and Jobs

Chapter 2 Analyzing Orgs and Jobs

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Chapter 2 Analyzing Orgs and Jobs

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  1. Chapter 2 Analyzing Orgs and Jobs Organizational need analysis chapter 2 Analyzing Orgs and Jobs

  2. Organizational need analysis • Typically prompted by a problem encountered • For example? • Problem or opportunity? • what is a problem? • What is an opportunity? • Org level Outcomes • Profit/ loss / stock fluctuation / market share • Why focus on these outcomes? chapter 2 Analyzing Orgs and Jobs

  3. Approaches to Org Need Analysis • How can IO help with Org problems and Opportunities? Examples for people solutions? • Approaches • Conference • Nature of problem or opportunity • What’s its history? • What outcomes or consequences are expected? • System wide or specific to sub unit? • Org assessment surveys • Make them systematic and ongoing • OAI Van de Ven & Ferry (1980) chapter 2 Analyzing Orgs and Jobs

  4. General Approach to Need Analysisa managerial function to generate hypotheses • What work outcomes are mostin need of fixing? • How widespread is the problem? • What level of analysis is needed • Individual employee / unit / dept / company? • What corrective actions are plausible? • How effective have the options been before? • Is selection / performance the answer? • Identify key informants to interview chapter 2 Analyzing Orgs and Jobs

  5. Job AnalysisDuties and KSAOs • Methods • Observation and Interviews • What if the work behavior is not observable? • Functional Job Analysis (S. Fine) • Data, People, Things • Occupation, Job family, Duty, Task, Element • Critical Incidents (Flanagan 1954) • What are some jobs that lend themselves to CI JA? • JA Surveys chapter 2 Analyzing Orgs and Jobs

  6. Task Inventory Development(E. McCormick ’59) • Job oriented • What is done • “bakes bread” and • Accomplishes - results • bread loaf • Worker oriented • Describes activity (behaviors)– • “Pours ingredients” • >?when is a behavior a behavior? chapter 2 Analyzing Orgs and Jobs

  7. Task Inventory Development • Using job experts (SMEs) • Writing Items • Item categories • Response scales (usually Liker type) • Frequency / duration / criticality / importance • Pilot Studies • Use “thinking aloud to capture • Thoughts, ambiguities, unintended meanings chapter 2 Analyzing Orgs and Jobs

  8. Inventory Research and Data Analysis • Task Inventory Administration • may need to sample • With large number of incumbents • To endure reliability (and hence validity) • Caution – inflation may occur! • Make sure the ratings are independent • Grouping Task Statements to: • ID jobs, define criteria, infer predictors • Linkage KSAOs to Activities (fig 2.2 p. 38) • How do you distinguish skills from abilities? • Or “job requirements?” chapter 2 Analyzing Orgs and Jobs

  9. Caveats! • 1. Different sources may yield different results • Are they seeing different parts of the job • What are some examples where you would expect this? • Must be reconciled • 2. Using all the complex info is not necessary • Two to three predictors are usually sufficient • 3. Job Descriptions usually reflect status quo • 4. Can the job be done with different behaviors? • Give examples? chapter 2 Analyzing Orgs and Jobs

  10. Caveats (con’t) • 5. JA is typically descriptive, not prescriptive • What does this mean? Give examples • How can observing high v. low performers help? • 6. There is no “one best way” • find one that is optimal • What are some considerations? chapter 2 Analyzing Orgs and Jobs

  11. Ready to Use Methods • Occupational Information Network O*Net • Personality-Based JA (fig 2.3 p. 42) • Self-Descriptive Index (Guion et al.) • 12 dimensions (based on IPIP Goldberg) • NEO Profiler (Costa, McRae, Kay, ‘95) • Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ) • Direct Id of Required Attributes • Job Requirements Inventory (fig 5.2 p48) chapter 2 Analyzing Orgs and Jobs

  12. Competency Modeling • What is it really? (Sackett & Laczo, ‘03) • Assumes JA focuses only on tasks, not KSAO’S • Are there such things as organizational competencies? • Should be required of all employees? • What are some? chapter 2 Analyzing Orgs and Jobs

  13. General Caveats • JA is subjective • Not every JA must be comprehensive • Be prepared before conducting it chapter 2 Analyzing Orgs and Jobs