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MCPHS Guide to UNDERSTANDING 6 th EDITION APA CITATION

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  1. MCPHS Guide to UNDERSTANDING 6th EDITION APA CITATION Student Support Services Massachusetts College of Pharmacy & Health Sciences

  2. Student Support Staff Liz Smith-Freedman Assistant Dean for Academic Support Services 508-373-5608 elizabeth.smith-freedman@mcphs.edu Dante Garland Academic Counselor Pharmacy 508-373-5621 dante.garland@mcphs.edu Kyla Pacheco Academic Counselor Health Sciences 508-373-5732 kyla.pacheco@mcphs.edu

  3. Statement of Intent The information contained in this presentation has been specially prepared for the use of MCPHS students, staff and faculty only. In no way is this presentation or any of its corresponding materials intended for distribution or use outside of the institution. Last updated: August 19, 2011

  4. Important Information • This presentation includes a basic review of APA style. For a complete guide to APA, refer to the items listed on the ‘Additional Resources’ slide of this presentation • Corresponding page numbers from the APA Style manual are referenced at the lower, left-hand corner of the slide when possible (see below) [corresponding page numbers will be found here]

  5. Agenda We will review 6th Edition APA in regards to: • Style • Format • In-Text Citations • References

  6. UNDERSTANDING 6th EDITION APA CITATION: Style

  7. Academic Language What it is: What it looks like: Clear Concise Appropriate use of punctuation Use of simple, descriptive adjectives Minimal to no use of figurative language Contains unbiased content • Language used in the formal context of learning • Different from the everyday English spoken in social interactions • Emphasizes the specific academic terms and technical language associated with individualized fields of study

  8. Specific Recommendations • Agreement of subject and verb: Correct: The data support the initial hypothesis. Incorrect: The data supports the initial hypothesis. • The use of the active voice rather than the passive voice: Correct: We collected data over a period of four years. Incorrect: The data was collected over a period of four years. pp. 77-78

  9. Acronyms & Abbreviations • First, address the item formally, followed by the intended abbreviation: First reference: Massachusetts College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences (MCPHS) policy states… • Following references to the item may be made in abbreviated form Second reference: MCPHS also requires students to… pp. 106-107

  10. Using Numbers Use WORDS to express value if the number : • is below 10 • begins a sentence, title, or heading • represents a common fraction • has a universally accepted usage (the Twelve Apostles, etc.) pp. 111-113

  11. Use NUMERALS to express value if the number: Using Numbers • is 10 and above • directly precedes a measurement • is in an abstract or graph • represents statistical or mathematical functions, fractional or decimal quantities, ratios, percentiles or quartiles • represents time, dates, ages, scores, points on a scale, exact sums of money • denotes a specific place in a numbered series, parts of books and tables pp. 111-113

  12. UNDERSTANDING 6th EDITION APA CITATION: Format

  13. General Guidelines • Are typed using 10-12 pt. Times New Roman font (or similar style) • Are double-spaced • Have 1” margins on all sides • Have appropriate page headers that follow APA guidelines Acceptable submitted documents:

  14. Document Header Examples • Title Page Following Pages Note: Longer document titles may be shortened in headers. The full title should remain the same on the title page. p. 230

  15. Section Headings • Establish a hierarchy of information • Effectively organize content • Make writing less complicated • Help readers understand key points The appropriate use of headings can: Note: Introduction sections never have a heading. pp. 62-63

  16. Levels of Heading p. 62

  17. UNDERSTANDING 6th EDITION APA CITATION: IN-TEXT CITATIONS

  18. Types of Citations Direct Quotes Paraphrased Information An idea, concept or information referred to from another work Required info: author(s), publication date Information must be represented accurately • Taken word for word from a source • Required info: author(s), publication date, page(s) • Information must be represented accurately pp. 170-173

  19. Direct Quotes from Journals/Books Example A Example B Bereznicki et al. (2011) found that “general practitioners expressed that patients were rarely forthcoming about problems with their asthma, even after being referred for an asthma management review by their pharmacists” (p. 351). “General practitioners expressed that patients were rarely forthcoming about problems with their asthma, even after being referred for an asthma management review by their pharmacists” (Bereznicki et al., 2011, p. 351). pp. 174-177

  20. Direct Quotes from Websites Example A Example B In “How cancer starts” (2011) it is explained that “people can inherit damaged DNA, but most DNA damage is caused by mistakes that happen while the normal cell is reproducing or by something in our environment” (para. 4). “People can inherit damaged DNA, but most DNA damage is caused by mistakes that happen while the normal cell is reproducing or by something in our environment” (“How cancer starts”, para. 4). pp. 174-177

  21. Paraphrased Information You paraphrase something when you are conveying an idea or concept that someone else has written about before (Paraphrase, 2011). Expressing an idea in your OWN words… Example: p. 171

  22. Citing Secondary Sources Referencing a work within another work • Only use secondary sources if: • The primary source is out of print, not available to you, or not available in English • The information is absolutely critical to your thesis • When citing a secondary source, both works must be referenced in the text (see examples below). The secondary source must also be listed in your references. Example(s): Flemming’s report (as cited in Knott & Sampson, 2010)… OR Flemming reported, “…” (as cited in Knott & Sampson, 2010, p. 187) secondary author authors of the primary work where the data can be found p. 178

  23. Et al. Think of et al. as meaning “and others” or “and other people” Use ‘et al.’ in the following circumstances: • (6+ authors) for first in-text citation For example, if you are citing information from the list of authors below, you would always use et al. in the text of your paper: Authors: ALL in-text citations: Smith, K. Barney, U. Jackson, A. Gill, C. Douglas, F. Blackwood, S. (Smith et al., 2011, p.42) OR Smith et al. (2011) stated… ‘et al.’ makes the text easier to read while letting the reader know there are other authors responsible for the work p. 177

  24. Et al. • (3+ authors) for subsequent in-text citations only For example, if you are citing information from the list of authors below, you would first address all three of the authors when citing the work in the text of you paper. If you refer to the work of those authors again, you would cite the name of the first author listed followed by ‘et al.’: First in-text citation: Any additional in-text citation(s): Authors: (Harvey, Gould, & Baker, 2009, p.9) OR Harvey, Gould, and Baker (2009) stated… (Harvey et al., 2009, p.87) OR Harvey et al. (2009) stated… Harvey, D. Gould, B. Baker, L. ‘et al.’ lets the reader know there are other authors responsible for the work p. 177

  25. UNDERSTANDING 6th EDITION APA CITATION: References

  26. Setting Up Your Reference Page • Remember: • The listing of references begin on the page following your work • This means the reference listings alwaysstart on a new page! • The word “References” is never bolded or underlined • The section is always double-spaced • Works are always listed alphabetically by author • If there is no author, list the work alphabetically by it’s distributor or article title • For each entry, all lines following the first are indented five spaces • This is called a ‘hanging indent’ (see red arrow above) p. 181-224

  27. Retrieval Data One of the following is always required: • Digital Object Identifier (doi) or Database Information • Publisher Information • Web Address

  28. What if there is no author? Some works do not list authors for a variety of reasons • For shorter works like newspaper and magazine articles or • websites, address the source by the specific article title in the text • and the references. In-text citation: “Peoplecan inherit damaged DNA, but most DNA damage is caused by mistakes that happen while the normal cell is reproducing or by something in our environment” (“How cancer starts”, para. 4). the article title and paragraph number provide supplemental data to reference the work appropriately Notice: The article title is only enclosed in quotations in the text Reference: How cancer starts. (2010). Retrieved August 12, 2011, from www.cancer.org/Cancer/CancerBasics/what-is-cancer pp. 205-206

  29. What if there is no author? • For works by a corporate author or government reports, address the source by its distributor in the text and references. In-text citation: “References acknowledge the work of previous scholars and provide a reliable way to locate it. References are used to document statements made about literature, just as data in the manuscript support interpretations and conclusions” (American Psychological Association, 2010, p. 37). the corporate author is used to reference the work appropriately Reference: American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association pp. 205-206

  30. Journals • Journal Articles from a Database Author, A. A. (Year). Title of the publication: Subtitle of the publication. Journal Title, (volume)issue, pages. doi:xxx/xxxx pp. 180-192

  31. Books • Basic Author, A. B. (Year). Title of work: Capitalize first letter in subtitle only. Location: Publisher • Editor, No Author(s) Editor, E.D. (Ed.). (Year). Title of work. Location: Publisher • Editor & Author(s) Author, A. B. (Year). Title of work. Editor, E.D. (Ed.). Location: Publisher pp. 180-192

  32. Websites • Web Document or Webpage (Authored) Author, A. A. (Date of Publication). Title of document. Retrieved August 12, 2011, from http://www.website.com • Web Document or Webpage (un-Authored) How cancer starts. (2011). Retrieved August 12, 2011, from www.cancer.org/Cancer/CancerBasics/what-is- cancer pp. 180-192

  33. Additional Resources Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th ed. APA Style website • (http://www.apastyle.org/) Purdue Online Writing Lab (OWL) • (http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/)

  34. References (The following were utilized to create this presentation) American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association Bereznicki, B. B., Peterson, G. G., Jackson, S. S., Haydn Walters, E., DeBoos, I. I., & Hintz, P. P. (2011). Perceived feasibility of a community pharmacy-based asthma intervention: A qualitative follow-up study. Journal of Clinical Pharmacy & Therapeutics, 36(3), 348-355. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2710.2010.01187.x Glossary of basic terms in TEFL studies. (2002). Retrieved on August 8, 2011, from http://www.finchpark.com/courses/glossary.htm How cancer starts. (2010). Retrieved on August 12, 2011, from www.cancer.org/Cancer/CancerBasics/what-is-cancer Kuehn, P. (2003). What is academic language. Retrieved from http://www.academiclanguage.org/Academic_Language.html Purdue Online Writing Lab. (2011). APA style. Retrieved from http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/section/2/10/