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  1. APA Citation Format 6th Edition Dr. David B. Ross Nova Southeastern University

  2. Table of Contents • When to cite • Authors • References • Punctuation • Numbers • Seriation

  3. When to cite? Whenever you are referring to an idea that (a) is not uniquely your own, or (b) one that has been drawn from another source, you must “cite” that idea as someone else’s. The most common example is from a periodical or book: In order to transform their school culture in a new direction, the learning community consisting of teachers, staff, students and parents, must realize the need for strong leadership (Reinhartz & Beach, 2004).

  4. When to cite? The order of the citation is important, and should include, in parenthesis, the author’s name, a comma, and the year of publication: In order to transform their school culture in a new direction, the learning community consisting of teachers, staff, students and parents, must realize the need for strong leadership (Reinhartz & Beach, 2004). Note* If you use the same author and year within the same paragraph, you must repeat the author and year in parenthesis. Authors’ names Year

  5. When to cite? The citation follows the expression of the idea; typically at the end of a sentence (an exception would be when you express two or more ideas in one sentence): In order to transform their school culture in a new direction, the learning community consisting of teachers, staff, students and parents, must realize the need for strong leadership (Reinhartz & Beach, 2004). This is the citation

  6. When to cite? You must cite the particular book each time you draw from it; not just the first time you use it in a text. You must cite the author and year in every paragraph; however, once you cite the author and year in that paragraph, the next time you do not have to repeat the year, except as stated in the previous slide when the author and year are in parenthesis. Kotter (2002) stated, “Management is about coping with complexity. Leadership is about coping with change” (p. 36). At the very least a school principal will need to be able to calm their people and share what needs to be done during change. Kotter informs us that school and business leadership have fundamental things in common in terms of challenges and solutions.

  7. When to cite? If your citation refers to a specific page or pages, you should also include that in your citation: “One of the principal’s primary leadership tasks is to guide the school faculty and students in the process of accepting and maintaining high standards of educational goal achievement” (Kimbrough & Burkett, 1990, p. 117). Page number

  8. When to cite? Important: if you directly quote a text, you must put the quote in quotation marks: “One of the principal’s primary leadership tasks is to guide the school faculty and students in the process of accepting and maintaining high standards of educational goal achievement”(Kimbrough & Burkett, 1990, p. 117). Note the gray portion is a direct quote from the Kimbrough & Burkett source

  9. When to cite? (p. 174 APA) Almost without exception, your in-text citation should “connect” to an entry in your references list toward the end of your paper. References list formats are covered later: “One of the principal’s primary leadership tasks is to guide the school faculty and students in the process of accepting and maintaining high standards of educational goal achievement”(Kimbrough & Burkett, 1990, p. 117). Kimbrough, R., & Burkett, C. W. (1990). The principalship: Concepts and practices. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

  10. When to cite? You may also at times refer to the authors without the parenthesis, if it “flows” better with your paper: DuFour and Eaker (1992) found that “the essential foundation of a school improvement initiative must be recognition of the need to invest in people, support people and develop people” (p. 5). Note the author is left out because it was mentioned earlier in the sentence

  11. When to cite? Here is another example of not using parenthesis with author and year: In 1992, DuFour and Eaker found that “the essential foundation of a school improvement initiative must be recognition of the need to invest in people, support people and develop people” (p. 5). In this instance the author and the year are mentioned in the prior sentence. The page number (specific to the idea/direct quote) is the only citation listing.

  12. Expressing Two or More Ideas in One Sentence Two or more authors: Other doctoral dissertations found no demographic differences in leadership (e.g., gender, educational level, years of administrative experience) (Condren, 2002; Fagan, 2001; Green, 1999; Patterson, 2002; Taylor, 2002). Make sure you separate authors with a semi-colon, and list them alphabetical

  13. Expressing Two or More Ideas in One Sentence As mentioned earlier, you might have two ideas from two different sources (notice the placement of the first citation after the first idea, then the second citation after the idea): Whether a person works for private corporations, such as Southwest Airlines, Home Depot, or the St. Petersburg Times (Harris, 1996; Maxwell, 1998), or a school board (DuFour & Eaker, 1992), people want to be treated in a professional manner while their needs are not compromised. 2nd “idea”

  14. Examples: No authors(p. 176-7 APA) What if your source does not have an author listed anywhere? You will list the first few words of the title of the work: If a principal does not develop an understanding of human nature, his or her employees will not follow (Leadership in Action, 2005). Title of source

  15. Examples: Personal Communications (p. 179 APA) • Personal communications, such as e-mails, interviews, phone interviews, etc. are cited within your text, but they are NOT listed in the references list: A secondary school principal (G. McKee, personal interview, June 12, 2003) stated he has a love for this job and is proficient at interacting with students, teachers, parents and the community. Please notice the personal interview in gray…This will NOT be listed in the references list

  16. Examples: No date (p. 185 APA) What if your source does not have a publish date listed anywhere? You will list the author, and “n.d.” for “no date” If a principal does not develop an understanding of human nature, his or her employees will not follow (Ross, n.d.). n.d. = “no date”

  17. Examples: Two authors Your book or periodical might have more than one author. You must list both authors every time you draw and idea from that particular source: Reinhartz and Beach (2004) comment in order to transform their school culture in a new direction, the learning community consisting of teachers, staff, students and parents, must realize the need for strong leadership. ***or*** In order to transform their school culture in a new direction, the learning community consisting of teachers, staff, students and parents, must realize the need for strong leadership (Reinhartz & Beach, 2004).

  18. Examples: More than Six Authors If you have more than six authors, you cite two different ways. The first time you cite the source, you list all authors: • They need dedicated cooperation and involvement by teachers, staff, parents and community to create a learning environment (Kosslyn, Koenig, Barrett, Cave, Tang, & Gabrieli, 2003). • Each additional time you cite this source in your paper, you only list the first author, and follow it up with et al. • “A new brand of leadership is needed to accomplish renewal – one committed to personal empowerment and the building of community” (Kosslyn et al., 2003, p. 3). “et al.” stands for “and others”

  19. Examples: Agency as Author • Perhaps you have a source that lists an agency, such as a government agency, as the author (and not an individual). In this instance you simply list that agency within the citation: Teachers in Florida have been more involved in preparing their students for the FCAT (Florida Department of Education, 2003). Florida Department of Education. (2003). Retrieved May 8, 2005, from http://www.firn.edu/doe/eias/eiaspubs/notchrs.htm Agency listed References section

  20. References (p. 37 APA) the word References should appear in uppercase and lowercase letters, and centered and bold. You will notice that the word Referencesis plural.

  21. References - Formatting • Reference lists are in alphabetical order by the author’s last name. • Multiple authors for the same reference are listed in alphabetical order. • If you have more than one reference by the same author, you list them in order by the year of publication. • Use “&” as opposed to “and” in references and between parenthesis (Smith & Jones, 2003) • Use “and” between authors when in the actual text …Olina and Sullivan (2002) note that feedback helps learners…

  22. References Recall that almost without exception, your in-text citation should “connect” to an entry in your references list toward the end of your paper. Lael (2002) emphasizes that principals empower teachers most by demonstrating their own commitment to being lifelong learners and teachers themselves. Lael, A. (2002). Instructional leadership: Learning on the job. Principal, 81(4), 65.

  23. References – Formatting (p. 177 APA) References are formatted in the fashion below. The reference is in “hanging indent” style, with the first line not indented and all lines that follow indented. Durocher, E. A. (1995). Leadership orientations of school administrators: A survey of nationally recognized school leaders. (Doctoral dissertation, Columbia University Teachers College, 1995). Lael, A. (2002). Instructional leadership: Learning on the job. Principal, 81(4), 65. “Hanging indent”

  24. References – Formatting a Book (p. 202 APA) In general, the author is listed first; last name first, first initial. The year is listed in parenthesis after that. The title is then displayed (in italics for a book). If it is a book, the city and state of publication is offered, followed by a colon and the publishing company name. Kotter, J. P. (1996). Leading change. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.

  25. Reference Examples (p. 198 APA) All authors are listed in alphabetical order. Bolman, L. G., & Deal, T. E. (1990). Leadership orientations. Brookline, MA: Leadership Frameworks. Capelluti, J., & Nye, K. (2003). Make one courageous decision a day. Principal Leadership, 3(7), 8-9. Esty, K., Griffin, R., & Hirsch, M. S. (1995). Workplace diversity. Avon, MA: Adams Media Corporation. ***notice the placements of periods, commas and spaces***

  26. Reference Examples: More than 6 authors The first six authors are listed, every author after that is referred to as “et al.” (“and others”). Stuebing, K., Fletcher, J., LeDoux, J., Lyon, G., Shawitz, S., Shaywitz, B., et al. (2002). Validity of IQ-discrepancy classifications of reading disabilities. American Educational Research Journal, 39(2), 469-518.

  27. Reference Examples: Periodical (p. 198 APA) A periodical, such a journal, magazine or newspaper, is referred to like below. The title of the article is listed after the year. The name of the periodical is next (italics), followed by the volume (italics), number and pages. Lael, A. (2002). Instructional leadership: Learning on the job. Principal, 81(4), 65-68. The periodical name and volume number are in italics Number and Page #s are not in italics

  28. Reference Examples: Internet Periodical An Internet periodical is listed in a reference list like any other periodical; however, it also includes the retrieval date and web address: Logan, J. P. (1998). School leadership of the 90s and beyond: A window of opportunity for women educators. Retrieved July 18, 2003, from http://www. advancingwomen.com/awl/summer98/LOGAN.html Note** the retrieval date may differ from the publish date. In this case the publish date is 1998 and the retrieval date is 2003. The website can not be a “hyperlink” (no underline)… To remove the hyperlink ,once typed, right click and select “remove hyperlink”

  29. Reference Examples: Govt. / Private Organization • Internet publications from organizations, government or private, will many times not display an author. The agency name is listed instead of the author. Florida Department of Education. (n.d.). Retrieved May 8, 2005, from http://www.firn.edu/doe/eias/eiaspubs/ notchrs.htm **Notice the website is separated to fill the line… and NO hyperlink Note: (n.d.) for “no date.” This can be used for any reference without a date

  30. Reference Examples: Govt. / Private Organization (p. 205 APA) What about a private organization? Here is an example: Ross Institute. (1999). Education in America. Retrieved May 8, 2005, from http://ross. inst. com

  31. Seriation (p. 63 APA)No Bullets in APA Example below… Note** When listing in the sentence use (a), (b), and (c)... Separate with commas…exception – if any sections have a comma within its phrase, separate with semicolons: (a) word, word and word; (b) word, and (c) word. When listing by numbers (not bullet symbols) notice the numbers (1, 2, 3 , 4) are indented in line with a paragraph indent. There are four elements necessary for an organization to become successful in accomplishing goals: (a) respect, (b) trust, (c) commitment, and (d) recognition (Wycoff, 1995). 1. Respect is the concern for the person and recognition of how important every single member of the organization is to the whole (p. 50). 2. Trust is having open, honest communication, fair dealings for all stakeholders, and a system for resolving conflict (p. 51). A primary contributor to an environment of trust is a high level of corporate ethics (p. 50). 3. Commitment, that is, when all employees are pointed in the same direction transforming a collection of people into a motivated team with a goal (p. 53). 4. Recognition means putting people first and customers second; recognizing their potential, creativity, and allowing people to contribute (p. 56).

  32. Important Points • You must “credit” others for their work; APA will do this for you; • If this credit is not given, you might be committing plagiarism; and • You must connect your citations to a link in the reference list (with the exception of personal interviews)…always double check that you have included them in-text as well as the reference section.

  33. Important Points • Consult the APA Publication Manual; • http://owl.english.purdue.edu/handouts/research/r_apa.html (Purdue University’s English Lab APA website) for further information. This Powerpoint is merely a basic primer in APA formatting; • Disclaimer: Be careful of some online APA formats…always refer to the APA manual; and • Please remember NSUs changes.

  34. I hope this slide presentation will be of some assistance…please note, I did not cover every issue in the APA manual…but this is a start. Good luck – Dr. David B. Ross