APA 6th Sullivan Library @ Dominican College Updated 11/30/2012
What is APA? • APA = American Psychological Association. • Psychology, Education, and Health Sciences • Used for publication of manuscripts • “Conformity” is the goal
What are the style rules? • 12 point Times New Roman font • 1” margins around all edges • Double spaced throughout • Running head (not author’s name) on each page • Page number in the upper right of each page
What do I need? • Title page (beginning) • Main body of paper (middle) • List of References (end)
General Formatting Rules • Paper title – no more than 12 words in length. Capitalize significant words. • Running head - No more than 50 characters, including spaces. This is a shortened version of your title. Use capital letters for the entire running head. Setting up running heads and page numbers in Word 2007/2010: • Insert > Header. Choose “Blank” or the first option. • IMPORTANT: Make sure you click “different first page” in Design > Options before you start typing. • Type your running head, Running head: TITLE OF YOUR PAPER Running head: EFFECTS OF SLEEP DEPRIVATION • Tab over your cursor to the far right side of the page, where your page number goes. • It might be helpful to view the ruler before you add a page number, to see where the edge of the page is. View > “Show” Section> Ruler. • Insert > Page Number > Current Position > Plain Number • A page number should be inserted on the far right side.
General Formatting Rules • Go down to page 2 by pressing the enter key or similar to set up page 2 and higher. Insert > Header. Choose “Blank” or the first option. • Type the running head (without Running head: …Compare to #3 on previous slide) TITLE OF YOUR PAPER EFFECTS OF SLEEP DEPRIVATION Thus, Running head: does not appear in the rest of your paper. This is why you need a different first page. • Tab over your cursor to the far right side of the page, where your page number goes. Insert > Page Number > Current Position > Plain Number A page number should be inserted on the far right side. Your paper should now be formatted appropriately in terms of the running head and page numbers.
Start of your paper • If you need an abstract as page 2, this would be page 3.
Why cite? • Gives credit to the researchers • Shows which sources contributed to your learning and intellectual growth • Allows readers to easily find the sources to further their own knowledge • Prevents accidental plagiarism by you
Did you know. . . ? • That it is plagiarism to: • Copy the words, ideas, graphs, images, etc. of others without proper credit • Cut and paste various ideas together from different sources without proper credit • Use the same paper in more than one class without permission • Edit material between quote marks without proper notice (look in the APA 6th manual for instructions on how to do it properly)
Citing what you found • Author / Date system: • Underwood and Findlay (2004) found that the problem occurred when . . . • In-text citations are a roadmap to your references page
Ways to cite properly • Two places to put Author/ Date info: • In the starting signal phrase: The experiments by Davis and Smith (2004) found that “a further variable was needed: time” (p. 13). • In parentheses at the end: … found that “a further variable was needed: time” (Davis& Smith, 2004, p. 13).
Rules you shouldn’t try to memorize . . . in-text citing 1 author (for both first and subsequent citations) Signal phrase… Williams (2001)* In the parentheses… (Williams, 2001, p. 13) 2 authors (for both first and subsequent citations) Signal phrase … Williams and Robinson (2001) * In the parentheses … (Williams & Robinson, 2001, p. 13) 3 authors (first citation) Signal phrase … Williams, Robinson, and Smith (2001)* In the parentheses … (Williams, Robinson, & Smith, 2001, p. 13) 3 authors (subsequent citations) Signal phrase … Williams et al. (2001)* In the parentheses … (Williams et al., 2001, p. 13) * = do not forget the page number goes at the end of the quotation!
Rules you shouldn’t try to memorize . . . in-text citing 4 authors (first citation) Signal phrase … Williams, Robinson, Smith, and Hu (2001)* In the parentheses … (Williams, Robinson, Smith, & Hu, 2001, p. 13) 4 authors (subsequent citations) Signal phrase … Williams et al. (2001)* In the parentheses … (Williams et al., 2001, p. 13) 5 authors (first citation) Signal phrase … Williams, Robinson, Smith, Hu, and Margt (2001)* In the parentheses … (Williams, Robinson, Smith, Hu, & Margt, 2001, p. 13) 5 authors (subsequent citations) Signal phrase … Williams et al. (2001)* In the parentheses … (Williams et al., 2001, p. 13) 6 or more authors (first and subsequent citations) Signal phrase … Williams et al. (2001)* In the parentheses … (Williams et al., 2001, p. 13) * =do not forget the page number in the parentheses at the end!
Paraphrasing vs. Quoting • Two ways to insert an idea into your paper • Direct quotation • Requires author/date information • requires a page number • Paraphrasing • Requires author/dateinformation • Page number optional, but highly encouraged (might be required by your professor)
Direct Quotation Example • Examples with required page number • Interpreting these results, Robbins et al. (2003) suggested that the “therapists in dropout cases may have inadvertently validated parental negativity” (p. 541), contributing to an overall climate of negativity. • Author / date / page # in parentheses … and furthermore, “therapists in dropout cases may have inadvertently validated parental negativity” (Robbins et al., 2003, p. 541), contributing to an overall climate of negativity.
What is paraphrasing? • More than changing the word order of a few words • More than just summarizing • Synthesizing (putting together) the information • Expressing what you have learned to the reader
Paraphrasing Example • Using a signal phrase for author / date to begin the sentence has the advantage of letting your reader know in advance that it is not your idea(s), but parenthetical citations are okay, too. • Page number is optional but encouraged. • The researcher stated that the therapist might have seemed to take the parents’ side, which then caused the session to take a negative turn (Robbins et al., 2003, p. 541).
Unique phrases in paraphrases • If you want to use a small unique phrase from the original text within your paraphrase: • The researcher stated that one of the issues was a therapist who “inadvertently validated parental negativity” and thus caused the session to take a negative turn (Robbins et al., 2003, p. 541).
Paraphrasing Tips • Re-read the text until you grasp its meaning • Physically cover the text up! • Re-write the quote from memory • Look over your work: • Any unique phrases you would not normally use need to be put in quotes (with a page number!) • Try to use different words than the author did • If it is close to the original idea, try again or ask for help
Citing a source mentioned in the source you have • Williams stated that “Nursing is fun” (as cited in Kaymen, 2009, p. 245). • Williams has the information you want to state/quote, but you don’t have his article • Kaymen is the text you have in your hands • Kaymen is the text you include in your reference list, because that is where you got the (secondary) information from, in case there is a discrepancy. • It is recommended that you try to find the original/primary source (Williams) rather than using the secondary source (Kaymen)
Two or more works in the same parentheses • If multiple items have the information, arrange in the parentheses by the order they would appear in the reference list: • Several studies (Miller, 1999; Shafranske & Mahoney, 1998) reinforce the claim… • Exception: major citations which should be consulted first by the reader: • (Minor, 2001; see also Adams, 1999; Storandt, 2007)
Personal Communication • Private letters, interview, telephone conversations, and etc. Sometimes includes online material, but be careful to make sure it is applicable for scholarly work. • R. A. Bates (personal communication, March 18, 2007) • T. K. Lithman (interview, April 2, 2012) • As the information is not recoverable by the reader, it is not included in the reference list, only the text of the paper.
Reference List Formatting • Located at the end of your paper, on a new page • Every source in the paper has an entry • One word at the top of the page, centered: References [Not bolded, italicized, or in quote marks]
Reference List Formatting • Entries in alphabetical order by (the first) author’s last name usually, or, if needed, the title of the work • Double spaced • Hanging indents used for references of 2+ lines • Cite the work of individuals whose ideas, research, or theories have influenced your paper • Citing an item implies you have read it
Author info (all items) • Two authors • Last Name, F. M.,& Last Name, F. M. (1985). … • Commas should separate last names and other authors. There is also a comma before ampersands ( & ) • Three to seven authors • Last Name, F. M., Last Name, F. M.,& Last Name, F. M. (1985). • More than seven authors • Last Name, A. A., Last Name, B. B., Last Name, C. C., Last Name, D. D., Last Name, E. E., Last Name, F. F., . . . Last Name, H. H. (1985).
Reference List - Books Last Name, F. M. (Year). An italicized title with only the first word capitalized: Except proper nouns or after colons.Location of Publisher: Publisher. Smith, T. S. (2004). Running home: An American sprinter’s story.Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE. Jones, B. Y., & James, C. A. (Eds.). (2009). Geriatric physical therapy within the hospital.Philadelphia, PA: F.A. Davis.
Reference List - Articles Last Name, F. M., & Last Name, F. M. (Year). An article title that is not italicized with only the first word capitalized: Except proper nouns or after colons.Name of Journal Italicized, vol#italicized(issue#),page#-page#. doi:##.###### EBSCOhost: ProQuest: (citation/abstract page) Note: some articles might not have DOIs.
Reference List - Articles • If the DOI is not available, you can use the URL of the journal’s homepage instead: . . .vol#(issue#),page#-page#. Retrieved from http://jopst.org • Or the name of the database (APA states only use this if that is what your professor wants). . . .vol#(issue#),page#-page#. Retrieved from Academic Search Elite.
Article Examples Sledziewski, L., Schaaf, R. C., & Mount, J. (2012). Preview use of robotics in spinal cord injury: A case report. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 166(1),51-8. doi: 10.5014/ajot.2012.000943 Passier, L. N., Nasciemento, M. P., Gesch, J. M., & Haines, T. P. (2010). Physiotherapist observation of head and neck alignment. Physiotherapy Theory & Practice, 26,416-423. Retrieved from: http://www. informahealthcare.com/ptp Note: If a journal uses continuous pagination (issue 1 is pg. 1 – 76, issue 2 is 77 – 183, etc.) you are not required to state the issue number in APA 6th, as shown in the 2nd example. Note: Technically, example 1 comes from A.J.O.T., which also uses continuous pagination and thus the (1) should not be included.
Reference List - Websites Last Name, F. M. (Publication or last update date). A website title with only the first word capitalized: Except proper nouns or after colons.Retrieved from: http://www.website.com National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. (2012, Jan. 9). NINDS stroke information page. Retrieved from: http://www.ninds.nih.gov/ disorders/stroke/stroke.htm
Reference List - Websites • No author – alphabetize by website title. • No date – use n.d. Stroke statistics. (2008, Nov. 30). Retrieved from: http:// nyp.org/health/neuro-strkstats.html Stroke statistics. (n.d.). Retrieved from: http:// nyp.org/health/neuro-strkstats.html
Reference List: Magazines Chamberlin, J., & Novotney, A., Packard, E., & Price, M. (2008, May). Enhancing worker well-being: Occupational health psychologists convene to share their research on work, stress, and health.Monitor on Psychology, 39(5).Retrieved from: http://www.apa.org/monitor/index.aspx • Magazines do not have DOIs, so use the magazine’s URL home page. • You probably won’t have a page number if you find it online. If you find it offline, you can use the page numbers instead of the retrieved from.
More help with APA • Paper formatting video: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9pbUoNa5tyY • Title: APA Format Citations-Sixth (6th) Edition • Username: peakdavid • Occupation: University Professor, Media and Communications • APA Reference List Sample http://flash1r.apa.org/apastyle/basics/data/resources/references-sample.pdf • APA Sample Paper http://supp.apa.org/style/PM6E-Corrected-Sample-Papers.pdf • APA Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) http://www.apastyle.org/learn/faqs/index.aspx