APA 6 th - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

apa 6 th n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
APA 6 th PowerPoint Presentation
play fullscreen
1 / 34
Download Presentation
APA 6 th
135 Views
gema
Download Presentation

APA 6 th

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. APA 6th Sullivan Library @ Dominican College Updated 11/30/2012

  2. What is APA? • APA = American Psychological Association. • Psychology, Education, and Health Sciences • Used for publication of manuscripts • “Conformity” is the goal

  3. What are the style rules? • 12 point Times New Roman font • 1” margins around all edges • Double spaced throughout • Running head (not author’s name) on each page • Page number in the upper right of each page

  4. What do I need? • Title page (beginning) • Main body of paper (middle) • List of References (end)

  5. General Formatting Rules • Paper title – no more than 12 words in length. Capitalize significant words. • Running head - No more than 50 characters, including spaces. This is a shortened version of your title. Use capital letters for the entire running head. Setting up running heads and page numbers in Word 2007/2010: • Insert > Header. Choose “Blank” or the first option. • IMPORTANT: Make sure you click “different first page” in Design > Options before you start typing. • Type your running head, Running head: TITLE OF YOUR PAPER Running head: EFFECTS OF SLEEP DEPRIVATION • Tab over your cursor to the far right side of the page, where your page number goes. • It might be helpful to view the ruler before you add a page number, to see where the edge of the page is. View > “Show” Section> Ruler. • Insert > Page Number > Current Position > Plain Number • A page number should be inserted on the far right side.

  6. General Formatting Rules • Go down to page 2 by pressing the enter key or similar to set up page 2 and higher. Insert > Header. Choose “Blank” or the first option. • Type the running head (without Running head: …Compare to #3 on previous slide) TITLE OF YOUR PAPER EFFECTS OF SLEEP DEPRIVATION Thus, Running head: does not appear in the rest of your paper. This is why you need a different first page. • Tab over your cursor to the far right side of the page, where your page number goes. Insert > Page Number > Current Position > Plain Number A page number should be inserted on the far right side. Your paper should now be formatted appropriately in terms of the running head and page numbers.

  7. Title Page

  8. Start of your paper • If you need an abstract as page 2, this would be page 3.

  9. Why cite? • Gives credit to the researchers • Shows which sources contributed to your learning and intellectual growth • Allows readers to easily find the sources to further their own knowledge • Prevents accidental plagiarism by you

  10. Did you know. . . ? • That it is plagiarism to: • Copy the words, ideas, graphs, images, etc. of others without proper credit • Cut and paste various ideas together from different sources without proper credit • Use the same paper in more than one class without permission • Edit material between quote marks without proper notice (look in the APA 6th manual for instructions on how to do it properly)

  11. Citing what you found • Author / Date system: • Underwood and Findlay (2004) found that the problem occurred when . . . • In-text citations are a roadmap to your references page

  12. Ways to cite properly • Two places to put Author/ Date info: • In the starting signal phrase: The experiments by Davis and Smith (2004) found that “a further variable was needed: time” (p. 13). • In parentheses at the end: … found that “a further variable was needed: time” (Davis& Smith, 2004, p. 13).

  13. Rules you shouldn’t try to memorize . . . in-text citing 1 author (for both first and subsequent citations) Signal phrase… Williams (2001)* In the parentheses… (Williams, 2001, p. 13) 2 authors (for both first and subsequent citations) Signal phrase … Williams and Robinson (2001) * In the parentheses … (Williams & Robinson, 2001, p. 13) 3 authors (first citation) Signal phrase … Williams, Robinson, and Smith (2001)* In the parentheses … (Williams, Robinson, & Smith, 2001, p. 13) 3 authors (subsequent citations) Signal phrase … Williams et al. (2001)* In the parentheses … (Williams et al., 2001, p. 13) * = do not forget the page number goes at the end of the quotation!

  14. Rules you shouldn’t try to memorize . . . in-text citing 4 authors (first citation) Signal phrase … Williams, Robinson, Smith, and Hu (2001)* In the parentheses … (Williams, Robinson, Smith, & Hu, 2001, p. 13) 4 authors (subsequent citations) Signal phrase … Williams et al. (2001)* In the parentheses … (Williams et al., 2001, p. 13) 5 authors (first citation) Signal phrase … Williams, Robinson, Smith, Hu, and Margt (2001)* In the parentheses … (Williams, Robinson, Smith, Hu, & Margt, 2001, p. 13) 5 authors (subsequent citations) Signal phrase … Williams et al. (2001)* In the parentheses … (Williams et al., 2001, p. 13) 6 or more authors (first and subsequent citations) Signal phrase … Williams et al. (2001)* In the parentheses … (Williams et al., 2001, p. 13) * =do not forget the page number in the parentheses at the end!

  15. Paraphrasing vs. Quoting • Two ways to insert an idea into your paper • Direct quotation • Requires author/date information • requires a page number • Paraphrasing • Requires author/dateinformation • Page number optional, but highly encouraged (might be required by your professor)

  16. Direct Quotation Example • Examples with required page number • Interpreting these results, Robbins et al. (2003) suggested that the “therapists in dropout cases may have inadvertently validated parental negativity” (p. 541), contributing to an overall climate of negativity. • Author / date / page # in parentheses … and furthermore, “therapists in dropout cases may have inadvertently validated parental negativity” (Robbins et al., 2003, p. 541), contributing to an overall climate of negativity.

  17. What is paraphrasing? • More than changing the word order of a few words • More than just summarizing • Synthesizing (putting together) the information • Expressing what you have learned to the reader

  18. Paraphrasing Example • Using a signal phrase for author / date to begin the sentence has the advantage of letting your reader know in advance that it is not your idea(s), but parenthetical citations are okay, too. • Page number is optional but encouraged. • The researcher stated that the therapist might have seemed to take the parents’ side, which then caused the session to take a negative turn (Robbins et al., 2003, p. 541).

  19. Unique phrases in paraphrases • If you want to use a small unique phrase from the original text within your paraphrase: • The researcher stated that one of the issues was a therapist who “inadvertently validated parental negativity” and thus caused the session to take a negative turn (Robbins et al., 2003, p. 541).

  20. Paraphrasing Tips • Re-read the text until you grasp its meaning • Physically cover the text up! • Re-write the quote from memory • Look over your work: • Any unique phrases you would not normally use need to be put in quotes (with a page number!) • Try to use different words than the author did • If it is close to the original idea, try again or ask for help

  21. Citing a source mentioned in the source you have • Williams stated that “Nursing is fun” (as cited in Kaymen, 2009, p. 245). • Williams has the information you want to state/quote, but you don’t have his article • Kaymen is the text you have in your hands • Kaymen is the text you include in your reference list, because that is where you got the (secondary) information from, in case there is a discrepancy. • It is recommended that you try to find the original/primary source (Williams) rather than using the secondary source (Kaymen)

  22. Two or more works in the same parentheses • If multiple items have the information, arrange in the parentheses by the order they would appear in the reference list: • Several studies (Miller, 1999; Shafranske & Mahoney, 1998) reinforce the claim… • Exception: major citations which should be consulted first by the reader: • (Minor, 2001; see also Adams, 1999; Storandt, 2007)

  23. Personal Communication • Private letters, interview, telephone conversations, and etc. Sometimes includes online material, but be careful to make sure it is applicable for scholarly work. • R. A. Bates (personal communication, March 18, 2007) • T. K. Lithman (interview, April 2, 2012) • As the information is not recoverable by the reader, it is not included in the reference list, only the text of the paper.

  24. Reference List Formatting • Located at the end of your paper, on a new page • Every source in the paper has an entry • One word at the top of the page, centered: References [Not bolded, italicized, or in quote marks]

  25. Reference List Formatting • Entries in alphabetical order by (the first) author’s last name usually, or, if needed, the title of the work • Double spaced • Hanging indents used for references of 2+ lines • Cite the work of individuals whose ideas, research, or theories have influenced your paper • Citing an item implies you have read it

  26. Author info (all items) • Two authors • Last Name, F. M.,& Last Name, F. M. (1985). … • Commas should separate last names and other authors. There is also a comma before ampersands ( & ) • Three to seven authors • Last Name, F. M., Last Name, F. M.,& Last Name, F. M. (1985). • More than seven authors • Last Name, A. A., Last Name, B. B., Last Name, C. C., Last Name, D. D., Last Name, E. E., Last Name, F. F., . . . Last Name, H. H. (1985).

  27. Reference List - Books Last Name, F. M. (Year). An italicized title with only the first word capitalized: Except proper nouns or after colons.Location of Publisher: Publisher. Smith, T. S. (2004). Running home: An American sprinter’s story.Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE. Jones, B. Y., & James, C. A. (Eds.). (2009). Geriatric physical therapy within the hospital.Philadelphia, PA: F.A. Davis.

  28. Reference List - Articles Last Name, F. M., & Last Name, F. M. (Year). An article title that is not italicized with only the first word capitalized: Except proper nouns or after colons.Name of Journal Italicized, vol#italicized(issue#),page#-page#. doi:##.###### EBSCOhost: ProQuest: (citation/abstract page) Note: some articles might not have DOIs.

  29. Reference List - Articles • If the DOI is not available, you can use the URL of the journal’s homepage instead: . . .vol#(issue#),page#-page#. Retrieved from http://jopst.org • Or the name of the database (APA states only use this if that is what your professor wants). . . .vol#(issue#),page#-page#. Retrieved from Academic Search Elite.

  30. Article Examples Sledziewski, L., Schaaf, R. C., & Mount, J. (2012). Preview use of robotics in spinal cord injury: A case report. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 166(1),51-8. doi: 10.5014/ajot.2012.000943 Passier, L. N., Nasciemento, M. P., Gesch, J. M., & Haines, T. P. (2010). Physiotherapist observation of head and neck alignment. Physiotherapy Theory & Practice, 26,416-423. Retrieved from: http://www. informahealthcare.com/ptp Note: If a journal uses continuous pagination (issue 1 is pg. 1 – 76, issue 2 is 77 – 183, etc.) you are not required to state the issue number in APA 6th, as shown in the 2nd example. Note: Technically, example 1 comes from A.J.O.T., which also uses continuous pagination and thus the (1) should not be included.

  31. Reference List - Websites Last Name, F. M. (Publication or last update date). A website title with only the first word capitalized: Except proper nouns or after colons.Retrieved from: http://www.website.com National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. (2012, Jan. 9). NINDS stroke information page. Retrieved from: http://www.ninds.nih.gov/ disorders/stroke/stroke.htm

  32. Reference List - Websites • No author – alphabetize by website title. • No date – use n.d. Stroke statistics. (2008, Nov. 30). Retrieved from: http:// nyp.org/health/neuro-strkstats.html Stroke statistics. (n.d.). Retrieved from: http:// nyp.org/health/neuro-strkstats.html

  33. Reference List: Magazines Chamberlin, J., & Novotney, A., Packard, E., & Price, M. (2008, May). Enhancing worker well-being: Occupational health psychologists convene to share their research on work, stress, and health.Monitor on Psychology, 39(5).Retrieved from: http://www.apa.org/monitor/index.aspx • Magazines do not have DOIs, so use the magazine’s URL home page. • You probably won’t have a page number if you find it online. If you find it offline, you can use the page numbers instead of the retrieved from.

  34. More help with APA • Paper formatting video: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9pbUoNa5tyY • Title: APA Format Citations-Sixth (6th) Edition • Username: peakdavid • Occupation: University Professor, Media and Communications • APA Reference List Sample http://flash1r.apa.org/apastyle/basics/data/resources/references-sample.pdf • APA Sample Paper http://supp.apa.org/style/PM6E-Corrected-Sample-Papers.pdf • APA Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) http://www.apastyle.org/learn/faqs/index.aspx