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Protein Synthesis

Protein Synthesis

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Protein Synthesis

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  1. Protein Synthesis How your cells use DNA to make proteins

  2. A white kangaroo?What gives? A white kangaroo is pretty rare. In order to understand how something like this happens, you need to understand how genes on a chromosome determine an organism’s inherited traits.

  3. Before we begin…Remember just how small cells are.

  4. Before we begin…Remember just how small cells are.

  5. Protein SynthesisWhere does it all begin? Trillions of cells together make up the various parts of your body. Inside each cell are many parts each having a different function.

  6. Protein SynthesisInside the nucleus of each cell, there are chromosomes. Each chromosome has a copy of ALL the genetic information for the whole organism.

  7. Protein SynthesisWhat is that chromosome made of anyway? It is pretty much one great big macromolecule of DNA all coiled up on itself. If you stretched it out, you could identify the double helix shape and the “ladder rungs”.

  8. Protein SynthesisWhat are those rungs made of? Each rung is a “nitrogenous base” made of carbon and nitrogen rings.

  9. Nitrogenous Bases Each nitrogenous base is made of only 14 to 16 atoms. These things are very small! But, they bond to each other specifically: Adenine to Thymine, and Guanine to Cytosine. In this way, they are like puzzle pieces.

  10. Lets not forgetJust how small atoms are compared to the cell…

  11. Lets not forgetJust how small atoms are compared to the cell…

  12. Protein SynthesisAll that goes on inside the nucleus of a cell is on the nanoscale. Supersmall!

  13. Protein SynthesisKeep in mind that DNA is a big, or “macro”, molecule made of atoms. Even though DNA is called a “macro” molecule does not mean that it is big enough to be seen on the macro scale. It is still nanoscopic! The sides of the ladder are made of pentose sugars (the blue shape), made of a ring of carbons, and a phosphate group, made of one phosphate atom and some oxygen atoms.

  14. Protein SynthesisKeep in mind that DNA is a big, or “macro”, molecule made of atoms. Even though DNA is called a “macro” molecule does not mean that it is big enough to be seen on the macro scale. It is still nanoscopic! The sides of the ladder are made of pentose sugars (the blue shape), made of a ring of carbons, and a phosphate group, made of one phosphate atom and some oxygen atoms.

  15. Protein SynthesisKeep in mind that DNA is a big, or “macro”, molecule made of atoms. The nitrogenous bases are made of either one or two carbon and nitrogen rings in a specific arrangement. Again, there are four nitrogenous bases in DNA: Adenine, Thymine, Guanine and Cytosine.

  16. Protein SynthesisKeep in mind that DNA is a big, or “macro”, molecule made of atoms. This model shows the sugar and phosphate group as long sides of the “ladder”, and the nitrogenous bases as the “rungs” of the ladder as colored strips.

  17. Protein SynthesisKeep in mind that DNA is a big, or “macro”, molecule made of atoms. While this model shows the individual atoms.