IN THE LAB, • Read the lab before you start. • Listen carefully and quietly when I need to announce something. • Keep your lab area free of books, food, unnecessary items. • Report accidents to me immediately.
SPECIFICS • ALWAYS: • Wear safety goggles when working with hazardous chemicals. • Point substances being heated over Bunsen burners AWAY from people. • Dispose of waste in the proper receptacle.
Smell substances by wafting air towards you over the top of the container.
SPECFICS • NEVER: • Perform “creative” experiments unless you have permission.
Never- • Never taste as lab substances unless instructed.
WARNING: • Failure to adhere to these safety regulations will result in immediate termination of the lab you are presently working on well, as well as possible future labs. • You or your parents will be held financially responsible for all equipment broken through neglect or misuse.
Reading Volume Always read volume from the bottom of the meniscus. The meniscus is the curved surface of a liquid in a narrow cylindrical container.
Try to avoid errors. Correct Incorrect
Measuring Volume • Read the volume using all certain digits and one uncertain digit. • Certain digits are determined from the calibration marks on the cylinder. • The uncertain digit (the last digit of the reading) is estimated.
Estimate the uncertain digit and take a reading The volume in the graduated cylinder is 52.8 mL.
25mL graduated cylinder What is the volume of liquid in the graduate? 1 1 5 _ _ . _ mL
10 mL Graduate What is the volume of liquid in the graduate? 6 6 _ . _ _ mL 2
Balance Rules In order to protect the balances and ensure accurate results, a number of rules should be followed: • Always check that the balance is level and zeroed before using it. • Never weigh directly on the balance pan. Always use a piece of weighing paper to protect it. • Do not weigh hot or cold objects. • Clean up any spills around the balance immediately.
Determining Mass 1. Place object on pan 2. Move riders along beam, starting with the largest, until the pointer is at the zero mark
1 1 4 4 9 7 _ _ _ . _ _ _ Read Mass