Chapter 7 Making a Living
What We Will Learn • What are the different ways by which societies get their food? • How do technology and environment influence food getting strategies? • How have humans adapted to their environments over the ages?
Five Major Food Gathering Strategies • Food collection: collecting vegetation, hunting animals, and fishing. • Horticulture: plant cultivation with simple tools and small plots of land, relying solely on human power. • Pastoralism: keeping domesticated animals and using their products as a major food source.
Five Major Food Gathering Strategies • Agriculture: horticulture using animal or mechanical power and some form of irrigation. • Industrialization: production of food through complex machinery.
Human Adaptation Humans adapt to climates in two ways: • Culturally - dietary patterns, levels of activities • Biologically - changes in the body
Food Gathering and the Environment • Most anthropologists agree that the environment sets limits on the form that food-getting patterns may take. Cultures help people adapt to inhospitable environments.
Characteristics of Food Collecting Societies • Low population densities. • Usually nomadic or semi nomadic rather than sedentary. • Basic social unit is the family or band. • Contemporary food-collecting peoples occupy the remote and marginally useful areas of the earth.
Carrying Capacity • The maximum number of people a given society can support, given the available resources.
Optimal Foraging Theory • A theory that foragers look for those species of plants and animals that will maximize their caloric intake for the time spent hunting and gathering foods.
Food Collecting • A form of subsistence that relies on the procurement of animal and plant resources found in the natural environment (aka foraging and hunting and gathering).
Question • _______ is a basic form of plant cultivation using simple tools, small plots of land, and relies on human power. • Pastoralism • Horticulture • Food collection • Agriculture
Answer: b • Horticulture is a basic form of plant cultivation using simple tools, small plots of land, and relies on human power.
Question • The gathering of wild vegetation and the hunting of small game is the strategy of: • horticulture. • pastoralism. • agriculture. • food collection.
Answer: d • The gathering of wild vegetation and the hunting of small game is the strategy of food collection.
Neolithic RevolutionFood Producing Societies • Transition from food collection to food production began 10,000 years ago • Humans began to cultivate crops and keep herds of animals. • Humans were able to produce food rather than rely only on what nature produced.
Ju/’hoansi • Despite popular misconceptions, foragers such as the Ju/’hoansi do not live on the brink of starvation.
Inuit • To survive in their harsh environment, the Inuit from Nunavut, Canada, have had to develop a number of creative hunting strategies, including the recent adoption of snowmobiles.
Changes Resulting From Food Production • Increased population. • Populations became more sedentary. • Stimulated a greater division of labor. • Decline in overall health reduced the life expectancy from 26 to 19 years.
Why Food Production Led to Declining Health • Foragers had a more balanced diet (plants and animal proteins). • Farmers ran the risk of malnutrition or starvation if the crops failed. • Increased population brought people into greater contact and made everyone more susceptible to parasitic and infectious diseases.
Question • It is not until ________, some 10, 000 years ago, that human beings began producing food by horticulture or animal husbandry. • the industrial revolution • the French revolution • the neolithic revolution • the aquaculture revolution
Answer: c • It is not until the neolithic revolution some 10, 000 years ago, that human beings began producing food by horticulture or animal husbandry.
Horticulture • The simplest type of farming, which involves the use of basic hand tools rather than plows or machinery driven by animals or engines. • Horticulturalists produce low yields and generally do not have sufficient surpluses to develop extensive market systems. • The land is neither irrigated nor enriched by the use of fertilizers.
Shifting Cultivation (Swidden, Slash and Burn) • A form of plant cultivation in which seeds are planted in the fertile soil prepared by cutting and burning the natural growth; relatively short periods of cultivation are followed by longer periods of fallow.
Pastoralism • Involves keeping domesticated herd animals and is found in areas of the world that cannot support agriculture because of inadequate terrain, soils, or rainfall. • Associated with geographic mobility, because herds must be moved periodically to exploit seasonal pastures.
Pastoralism: 2 Movement Patterns • Transhumance • Some of the men move livestock seasonally to different pastures while the women, children, and other men remain in permanent settlements. • Nomadism • There are no permanent villages, the whole social unit of men, women, and children moves the livestock to new pastures.
Tibetan Yak Herders • Tibetan yak herders must movetheir animals periodically to ensureadequate pasturage.
Social Functions of Cattle • The use of livestock by pastoralists not only for food and its byproducts but also for purposes such as marriage, religion, and social relationships. • Stock friendship • A gift of livestock from one man to another to strengthen their friendship.
Agriculture • Uses technology such as irrigation, fertilizers, and mechanized equipment. • Produces high yields and supports large populations. • Associated with permanent settlements, cities, and high levels of labor specialization.
Draft Animals • The use of draft animals, as practiced by this farmer from Hoi An, Vietnam, involves a more complex form of crop production than swidden farming.
Agriculture: Costs of Greater Productivity • Can support many times more people per unit of land than the horticulturalist. • Agriculturalists must devote vast numbers of hours of hard work prepare the land. • Intensive agriculture requires a much higher investment of capital.
Terraced Farming • This terraced form of farming, as found in Indonesia, involves a long-term commitment to the land and a considerable expenditure of labor.
Peasantry • Rural peoples, usually on the lowest rung of society’s ladder, who provide urban inhabitants with farm products but have little access to wealth or political power.
Question • Because of its reliance on animal power and technology, ________ differs from horticulture, and is a more intensive and efficient system. • horticulture • nomadism • agriculture • pastoralism
Answer: c • Because of its reliance on animal power and technology, agriculture differs from horticulture, and is a more intensive and efficient system.
Industrialization • A process resulting in the economic change from home production of goods to large-scale mechanized factory production.
Ecosystems • This Kayapo woman from Brazil knows not to kill the foraging ants in her garden because they actually weed and fertilize her crops.
Industrialized Food Production • Uses more powerful sources of energy. • Requires: • High levels of technology (such as tractors and combines) • Mobile labor force • Complex system of markets