Site Planning and Layout • In the design phase of a facility, fire protection requirements are considered in the site layout • Water supply, traffic and transportation conditions, fire department access, and building exposures
Water Supply and Use • Building designer should anticipate the needs of both the fire department and automatic extinguishing systems • Provide an adequate supply of water at an adequate residual pressure. • Cities may not be able to supply a sufficient amount of water at required pressures to every part of the city • May need to be boosted by pumps located on fire department apparatus or the buildings • Water pressure for high rise buildings
Traffic and Transportation • Time • Traffic conditions • Access to buildings • Fire Department Access • Exterior accessibility - fire department apparatus from all sides
Exposure From Other Buildings • External fire hazards to neighboring structures • Radiation and convection • Factors Influencing Severity of Exposure • Temperature and duration • Exposing Fire • Type of construction of exterior walls and roofs • Width of exposing fire • Height of exposing fire • Percent of openings in exposing wall area • Exposed Building • Type of construction of exterior walls and roofs • Orientation and surface area of exposed exterior walls • Percent of openings in exterior wall area • Protection of openings
Exposure Protection • Reference on Exposure Protection: • NFPA 80A, Recommended Practice for Protection of Buildings from Exterior Fire Exposures
NFPA 80A: Recommended Practice for the Protection of Buildings from Exterior Fire Exposures • Provide a reasonable level of protection for combustibles within and on the exterior of a building exposed to external building fire • Two major exposure sources: • Exposure to radiation • Radiant energy passing through windows or other openings • Flames from burning building windows • Flames from the burning façade • Exposure to Flames • Flames from the roof or top a building when the exposed building is higher than the burning building
Minimum Separation Distances • Calculated using a number of factors • Width of the exposing fire • Height of the exposing fire
Exposure Severity • Average combustible load per unit of floor area • Characteristics and average flame spread ratings of interior wall and ceiling finishes. • Using the larger of the height to width or width to height ratio of the exposing fire, the exposure severity, and exposure guide number, the minimum separation distance can be calculated using table values and multipliers.
Means of Protection • Various means of protection can be used to adjust the calculated separation distances downward • Examples of protection measures include: • Use of automatic sprinklers • Use blank walls made of non-combustible construction • Extend exterior walls • Eliminate wall openings • Use glass block panels in openings
Building Electrical Systems • As part of the building design, consideration must be taken with regards to electrical systems and equipment • Number of structure fires per year due to electrical equipment: • Electrical Distribution Equipment: 40,350 • Appliance or Tool: 11,110 • Heating Equipment: 5,830 • Cooking Equipment: 5,210 • Air-Conditioning or Refrigeration Equipment: 3,890
Sources for Fires • Human Errors That Contribute to Fires • Lack of Maintenance • Improper Use • Carelessness or Oversight • Electrical Arcing • Electrical Heating
Electrical Safeguards • Grounding • Guarding • Over current Protection • Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters
NEC Hazard Classifications • Class I: Flammable Gases & Vapors • Division 1 • Division 2 • Class II: Combustible Dusts • Division 1 • Division 2 • Class III: Ignitable Fibers • Division 1 • Division 2
Hazard Classifications • How are the hazard classifications used in industry? • How do “explosion proof wiring and electrical components work? • How would I select electrical equipment that is planned for use in a hazardous location?
Codes and Standards • NFPA 70: National Electrical Code • OSHA Standards • State and local electrical safety/building codes • Chicago Electrical Code • Alaska Electrical Code • ANSI/IEEE: National Electrical Safety Code • U.S. electrical industry and communications utility field
National Electrical Code Format • Chapter 1 General • Article 100 — Definitions • Article 110 — Requirements for Electrical Installations • Chapter 2 Wiring and Protection • Articles 200 – 299 • Chapter 3 Wiring Methods • Articles 300 – 399 • Chapter 4 Equipment for General Use • Articles 400 – 499 • Chapter 5 Special Occupancies • Articles 500 – 599 • Chapter 6 Special Equipment • Articles 600 – 699 • Chapter 7 Special Conditions • Articles 700 – 799 • Chapter 8 Communications Systems • Articles 800 – 899 • Chapter 9 Tables
OSHA Electrical Safety Standards • 1910 Subpart S: Electrical • 1910.301 - Introduction. • 1910.302 - Electric utilization systems. • 1910.303 - General. • 1910.304 - Wiring design and protection. • 1910.305 - Wiring methods, components, and equipment for general use. • 1910.306 - Specific purpose equipment and installations. • 1910.307 - Hazardous (classified) locations. • 1910.308 - Special systems. • 1910.399 - Definitions applicable to this subpart. • Subpart S Appendix A - Reference Documents
OSHA Electrical Standards • 1910.302(a) Scope • OSHA standards under Subpart S cover electrical installations and utilization equipment installed or used within or on buildings, structures, and other premises, including: • Yards; • Carnivals; • Parking and other lots; • Mobile homes; • Recreational vehicles; • Industrial substations; • Conductors that connect the installations to a supply of electricity; and • Other outside conductors on the premises.
OSHA Electrical Standards • 1910.302(b) Extent of application • Certain standards apply to certain applications based upon when they were designed and/or installed
Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labeling of Chemicals (GHS) • Developed by the United Nations, the premise of the GHS is that existing chemical classification and labeling systems (such as OSHA’s Hazard Communication Standard (HCS)) “should be harmonized in order to develop a single, globally harmonized system to address classification of chemicals, labels and safety data sheets.” • Covers all hazardous chemical substances, dilute solutions, and mixtures. • The GHS is not a global law or regulation; it is a system or a set of recommendations.
Flammable liquids • Category 1: Extremely flammable liquid and vapour • Category 2: Highly flammable liquid and vapour • Category 3: Flammable liquid and vapour • Category 4: Combustible liquid
OSHA’s Flammable Liquids Definitions Under GHS • Flammable liquid means any liquid having a flashpoint at or below 199.4 °F (93 °C). Flammable liquids are divided into four categories as follows: • Category 1 shall include liquids having flashpoints below 73.4 °F (23 °C) and having a boiling point at or below 95 °F (35 °C). • Category 2 shall include liquids having flashpoints below 73.4 °F (23 °C) and having a boiling point above 95 °F (35 °C). • Category 3 shall include liquids having flashpoints at or above 73.4 °F (23 °C) and at or below 140 °F (60 °C). When a Category 3 liquid with a flashpoint at or above 100 °F (37.8 °C) is heated for use to within 30 °F (16.7 °C) of its flashpoint, it shall be handled in accordance with the requirements for a Category 3 liquid with a flashpoint below 100 °F (37.8 °C). • Category 4 shall include liquids having flashpoints above 140 °F (60 °C) and at or below 199.4 °F (93 °C). When a Category 4 flammable liquid is heated for use to within 30 °F (16.7 °C) of its flashpoint, it shall be handled in accordance with the requirements for a Category 3 liquid with a flashpoint at or above 100 °F (37.8 °C). • When liquid with a flashpoint greater than 199.4 °F (93 °C) is heated for use to within 30 °F (16.7 °C) of its flashpoint, it shall be handled in accordance with the requirements for a Category 4 flammable liquid.
Classification Criteria • Health and Environmental Hazards • Physical Hazards • Mixtures • Hazard Communication • Labels • Safety Data Sheets
Acute Toxicity • Skin Corrosion/Irritation • Serious Eye Damage/Eye Irritation • Respiratory or Skin Sensitization • Germ Cell Mutagenicity • Carcinogenicity • Reproductive Toxicity • Target Organ Systemic Toxicity – Single and Repeated Dose • Hazardous to the Aquatic Environment
Physical Hazards • Explosives • Flammability – gases, aerosols, liquids, solids • Oxidizers – liquid, solid, gases • Self-Reactive • Pyrophoric – liquids, solids • Self-Heating • Organic Peroxides • Corrosive to Metals • Gases Under Pressure • Water-Activated Flammable Gases