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World Religions

World Religions

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World Religions

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  1. World Religions

  2. Buddhism • Founder: Siddhartha Gautama • Sought to find a release from suffering • Buddha “ The Enlightened One” • Enlightenment: A state of perfect wisdom in which one understands basic truths about the universe. • Nirvana: Release from selfishness and pain • The Path to Enlightenment: • The Four Noble Truths • Life is filled with suffering and sorrow • The cause of all suffering is people’s selfish desire for the temporary pleasures of the world • The way to end all suffering is to end all desire. • The way to overcome such desires and attain enlightenment is to follow the Eightfold Path. • The Eightfold Path (Middle Way) • Right Views • Right Resolve • Right Speech • Right Conduct • Right Livelihood • Right Effort • Right Mindfulness • Right Concentration • Belief in Reincarnation • Religious Leaders: Monks and Nuns

  3. Hinduism • Polytheistic: Gods represent different forms of Brahman • Brahma: The Creator • Vishnu: The Preserver • Siva: The Destroyer • Beliefs: • People reach true enlightenment and happiness after they free themselves from their earthly desires. • Enlightenment: achieved through worship, attainment of knowledge, lifetime of virtuous acts. • Reincarnation: the atman (soul) is born in another being after death. • The Atman (soul) may progress up or down from plants to animals based on good or bad Karma (Actions) and Dharma (living the right way). • When the Atman (soul) becomes completely pure, it can leave the cycle of rebirth and return to Brahman. • Sacred Texts: • The Vedas • The Upanishads • The BhagavadGita • Religious Leaders: Guru, Holy Man, Brahmin Priest

  4. Daoism (Taoism) • Founder: Laozi • Sacred Text: Dao De Jing • Symbol: Yin and Yang • Unseen forces found in everything, balance each other harmoniously. • Beliefs: • Dao: “the way” a universal force, guides all things • Nature is more important than social order • People should live a simple life close to nature, reflect on the Dao to keep harmony, this eventually leads to a perfect balance in life. • Daoists must help other and be good and everything they do. • Daoists must not yearn for power and wealth or being “first in the world”

  5. Judaism • Hebrews came to be called Jews, religion Judaism • Monotheistic- Yahweh (God) • Founder: Abraham • Promised to obey Yahweh • Covenant: mutual promise between God and Abraham • Holy Book: Torah (First five books of the old testament) • Sacred Writings: Talmud (written versions of Jewish law and interpretations) • Symbols: Star of David, Menorah (7 branch candlestick) • Exodus: • Jews migrate out of slavery in Egypt • Moses led the out of slavery • Received the 10 Commandments from God on Mt. Sinai • Beliefs: • One God • God created world and created Man in his image • The Jews are God’s chosen people • Promised Land: Cannan (God promised this land to the Jews through a covenant with Abraham) • All people are equal and should be treated with respect and love. • Laws: • All meat must be Kosher (prepared in a certain way and drained of blood) • Some foods prohibited • Meat and milk should not be used together • No work on the Sabbath (Friday evening – Saturday evening) • Religious Leader: Rabbi • Place of Worship: Synagogue

  6. Judaism

  7. Christianity • Monotheistic • Share some beliefs, teachings, texts of Judaism • Founder: Jesus Christ • Holy Trinity: Father (God), Son (Jesus), Holy Ghost (God’s presence in the world) • Teachings/Beliefs: • Jesus is the son of God, born of the Virgin Mary • Apostles/Disciples: Followers of Christ, help spread the teachings • Parables: Stories used by Jesus to teach • Important Teachings: Compassion, Mercy, Forgiveness • Love God and love your neighbor • Humans are born into sin, saved from sin through Jesus • The crucifixion of Jesus was meant as a sacrifice to atone for human sins • Resurrection: Jesus rose from he dead three days after crucifixion, showing he was divine, symbolizing new life, the dead will rise again (eternal life). • Ordinary people were just as important and worthy as the rich and powerful • Holy Book: Bible • New Testament: The life and teachings of Jesus • Divisions of Christianity: • Roman Catholic • Eastern Orthodox • Protestant • Symbols: Cross, Fish • Religious Leaders: Priests, Ministers, Monks, Nuns

  8. Islam • Monotheistic: Allah (God) • Founder: Muhammad • Islam = Religion, Muslim = follower of Islam • Holy Book: Qur’an (Koran) • Beliefs: • Muhammad was the last of the prophets (Abraham, Moses, Noah, Jesus Christ, Muhammad) • Life after death, this life prepares one for the next • Following the Five Pillars of Islam leads to salvation • Affirmation of Faith in Allah • Prayer five times a day • Gifts to the poor • Fasting during Ramadan (Holy Month) • Pilgrimage to Mecca (Holy City) • Religious Leaders: Imams • Temple: Mosque • Prayers are said facing Mecca • Symbols: Crescent and Star • Divisions of Islam: • Sunnis • Shi’ites