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PLANET EARTH

PLANET EARTH

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PLANET EARTH

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  1. PLANET EARTH v2

  2. HISTORY OF EARTH v2

  3. v2

  4. v2

  5. SOME EFFECTS OF MAN ON THE ENVIRONMENT v2

  6. SOME PAST ENVIRONMENTS Gin Lane by Hogarth (1750) Legacy of industrial revolution by Lowry v2

  7. LONDON SMOG OF 1952 v2

  8. THE 20th CENTURY • Environmental change is as old • as the planet • Man has continually altered the • environment, but there has never • been anything like the 20th century v2

  9. SOME MEASURES OF 20TH CENTURY v2

  10. LATTER HALF OF 20th CENTURY • 19501997 • Population (bln) 2.5 5.8 • Life expectancy at birth 47 67 • Megacities (> 8 mln) 2 25 • Food (avg cal/capita) 1980 2770 • Fish catch (mln tons) 19 91 • Water use (bln cu m) 1300 4200 • Rain forest cover index 100 70 • CO2 emissions (bln t C) 1.6 7.0 • CFC in atmosphere (ppb) <1 3.0 Source:World Resources Institute, 1996 v2

  11. IMPROVED LOT OF MANKIND • By many indicators the lot of mankind has vastly improved. For example: • Prosperity • Life expectancy • Education • However this does not mean that things are good enough Lomborg, 2001 Also there are threats and unknowns v2

  12. ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT • The good news is good:never before have so many experienced so rapid an improvement in their standards of living • The bad news is appalling: a large number of desperately poor countries are falling further behind Wolf, Financial Times, 2003 Question: are there environmental implications of the good news? v2

  13. DEVELOPMENT AND THE ENVIRONMENT: SCHEMATIC • Affluence problems: manyindustrialisation problems plus concerns over, e.g. • GM foods • chemicals in environment • nuclear energy • destruction of countryside • pressure on wildlife • transport: roads, airports • Industrialisation problems, e.g • SO2 and other toxic industrial and transport related emissions • greenhouse gas emissions • total consumption of water, energy and other non renewable resources • waste • urbanisation • child labour • Scope: local, regional and global • Poverty problems, e.g • Malnutrition • lack of clean water • lack of sanitation • smoke from cooking • pressure on local resources e.g. wood for fires • child labour • Scope: local Economic development (GDP) v2

  14. MAJOR GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES • Include: • Greenhouse gases and global warming • Use of non renewable resources • Fresh water availability and quality • Food availability and distribution • Pollution and waste • Biodiversity loss • Deforestation v2

  15. OTHER ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERNS Include: v2

  16. YEARS OF LOST LIFE CAUSED BY SOME MAJOR RISK FACTORS Malnutrition Years of life lost % Water &Sanitation Tobacco Physical inactivity Unsafe sex v2

  17. MAGNITUDE OF SOME ISSUES AND COST TO ALLEVIATE v2

  18. COMPARISON OF THREE MAJOR ISSUES v2

  19. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT x x v2

  20. FACTOR FOUR If the world population and average wealth doubles, then for there to be no increase in environmental impact the third term will have to improve by dramatic factor of 4 This is merely to maintain the ‘status quo’. To reduce environmental impact, higher values are required. For example to halve greenhouse gas emissions an improvement factor of 8 would be needed v2

  21. ECOLOGICAL FOOTPRINTS If the entire world lived like North Americans, it would take three planet Earths to support the present world population Energy is the main component of this v2

  22. POTENTIAL IMPACT OF DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: SCHEMATIC Global environmental impact in terms of resource depletion and major emissions Developing countries if resource consumption and emission figures increase to those of developed countries Developed countries 20006 billion people 21009 billion people Year and global population v2 Adapted from an FoE publication

  23. MAJOR GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL CHALLENGES • 1.2 billion people living in poverty on less than 1 US dollar a day • Potential impact of industrialising countries like China and India, e.g. in generation of greenhouse gases • Disproportionate impact of developed countries, e.g. in generation of greenhouse gases v2

  24. ECONOMIC GROWTH AND HUMAN HAPPINESS In economically developed countries the link between economic growth and human happiness is breakingSomething is missing! v2

  25. MASLOW’S HIERARCHY OF HUMAN NEEDS SELF-ACTUALISATIONpursue inner talent, creativity, fulfilment SELF-ESTEEMachievement, mastery, recognition, respect BELONGING, LOVE friends, family, spouse SAFETYsecurity, stability, freedom from fear PHYSIOLOGICAL food, water, shelter, warmth v2

  26. GEOGRAPHICAL IMPACT OF OUR ACTIONS • Some things we do impact locally, e.g. waste generation • Some things we do impact locally and globally, e.g. greenhouse gas emissions v2

  27. SOME ISSUES TO CONSIDER • Consider: • What effect our actions have on our local environment • What effect our actions have on the global environment • What example are we setting to less developed countries v2

  28. Some reasons for an individual’s position on the environment Personal values Laws Societal ‘norms’ Available Options v2