Planet Earth By Fred Clark
What is a Earth? • Earth is the planet where we (the humans) and millions of different species live on. • Earth is also a “planet.” • Earth is also known as the goldilocks planet because of the first planet closest to the sun being too cold and the second planet being to hot while the third planet closest to the sun is just right.
What does Earth look like? • A cool fact about Earth is that the Earth is not perfectly round. It’s actually shaped like a oval, but is more of a sphere more than a oval, and the surface is very lumpy. • The surface of the Earth is actually made up of 70% water, giving its blue color threw space. • About 30% of the Earth surface is made up of land, including continents and islands.
Where is Earth in this vast, empty space???? • Earth is located in the Milky Way Galaxy, on Orion’s Arm not far but still far away from the center of Orion’s arm. • Earth is the third closest planet to the sun in our solar system, which consist of our sun, eight other planets, and a dwarf planet (Pluto got kicked off as counting as a planet). • With Mercury being the first closest and the planet Venus being the second closest, Venus is also known as Earth’s sister because of how close the are in size.
Earth’s Structure • Earth has always been in motion, ALWAYS. • Earth has three layers which is the core, which is in the center of the Earth. Then above the core is the mantle. Then is the crust which is the surface. • On the top of the Earth is the crust, which is very thin for the Earth, but for us is very deep, so deep that we can’t even drill through it. • At the bottom of the Earth’s crust is moving plates called tectonic plates. • These tectonic plates only move four inches a year and can’t be felt. But, sometimes this plates will crash, grind, or pull apart from each other, causing earthquakes, tsunamis, or even create new mountains or volcanoes. • The plates float on magma, which is melted rock.
Internal Forces of Change • The Earth’s surface changes constantly all the time, which can either be a small change or a huge change which can probably happen when there is a (for instance) huge earthquake. • Our scientists believe that these constant changes are partly caused by the tectonic plates. One of the reason tectonic plates is part of the changes is the magma moving within the Earth. • Other Internal changes are caused by movement along the crust of the Earth.
External Forces of Change • External Forces is the exact opposite of the Internal Forces (fire and rock)which is wind and water. • The also constantly change the appearance of the Earth’s surface. • Air changes the surface by breaking down rock into smaller rocks. Which is called weathering. • Water changes the surfaces by moving it. This is called erosion. • Take for instance that there is a mountain by a beach and waves of sea water is constantly slamming into the side of the mountain. Over time the side of that mountain is washed away, as in gone. Now this won’t be instantly happen to the mountain, but will take a lot of time till the side is washed away.
Earth’s water • There is a total of 70% of water on the Earth, and even then, 97% of the water on the Earth is to salty for drinking, farming, or manufacturing. • Because of the population of everything (most humans) dramatically increasing today, we are needing more water, such as removing the salt from the sea water which is called “desalination” • However, this process cost way to much money, and even then, only a small amount of fresh water can be made. • About only 3% of the water on Earth is freshwater, and most is not available for humans to drink. Even worse, more than 2% of the freshwater is frozen in glaciers and ice caps like in the artic circle.
Extra CreditHow on Earth can Earth sustain life? • There are two things that every living thing on this planet needs: Number one (the most important) Oxygen. Why? Because nearly all of our organs need oxygen to function. • When we breath in oxygen, it goes into our lungs which then travels threw our blood into other places needed through out our body. • How can the Earth keep oxygen on Earth? Well I’ll tell you. You see, there is a thing surrounding all over the Earth, 6,000 miles above from the Earth’s surface called the “atmosphere.” • The atmosphere is layers of gases made up of 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, and small amounts of argon and other gases.
Oxygen continued • However, do to the pollution of man, the pollution is burning holes in the atmosphere, which causes the sun’s rays to get trapped inside the atmosphere, making the temperature hotter on Earth. • Although, plants do not breath in oxygen, they breath in (or absorb) carbon dioxide. • What plants do is that they once that they breath in carbon dioxide, they breath out clean oxygen, otherwise known as photosynthesis. • What we do is that we breath in oxygen and the breath out carbon dioxide as a result, so basically, both animals and plants need each other.
water • Second thing every living thing needs is water. • With out water we wouldn’t be able to turn food into energy. • Also It’s very dangerous to go on living with water. The maximum time for a human being to survive without water is more than three days. • Most of a animals body is made of water more than anything else.