Middle Eastern Studies Terrorist Organizations
MUSLIM BROTHERHOOD • Hizb al-Ikhwan al-Muslimun • Founded in 1928 by Hasan al-Banna a 22-year old elementary school teacher • Motto: • Allah is our objective. The Prophet is our leader. The Qur’an is our law. Jihad is our way. Dying in the way of Allah is our highest hope”
Began as an Islamic Revivalist movement at the fall of the Ottoman Empire and the banning of the caliphate system of government • Al-Banna based his ideas on Islam as a way of life. • Islamism was called Wahhabism at that time • Al-Banna began to supplement the education of his male students with jihadia training.
Next 20 years, Muslim Brotherhood became a political party too – Party of the Muslim Brotherhood • By 1948, it was blaming Egypt for not caring and had joined the Palestinians in their fight against the “Zionists”/Israel • Began terrorist attacks in Egypt • Egypt banned the group • Egyptian Prime Minister,, Mahmud FahmiNokrashi was assassinated by a member of the Muslim Brotherhood in 1948 • Al-Banna was killed by Egyptian government agents in 1949
Muslim Brotherhood Timeline • 1928 – formed • 1948 – joined Palestinian cause • Legalized by Egyptian government in 1948 as a religious organization • 1954 – banned again due to insistence that Egypt operate under Shari’a Law • Assassination attempt on Egyptian President Nasser – five Brothers executed • 1964 – Nasser grants amnesty hoping to weaken interest in Arab Socialist Union Party • Three more Brothers try to assassinate him • 1966 – top Brotherhood leaders executed and many more put in prison • 1970s – Egyptian President Sadat promises Shari’a Law in Egypt • 1979 – Sadat signs peace with Israel, ticks off Brotherhood • 1981 – Brotherhood assassinates Sadat
Today – Brotherhood holds seats in Egyptian Parliament, • Has complex financial networks world-wide • Has divisions of its group such as • Al-Jihad and al Islamiyya in Egypt • Hamas in Palestine • Mujahideen in Afghanistan • Muslim Brotherhood
FEDAYEEN • Founded in 1948 as guerilla militants who tried to infiltrate Israel to mess up their military • Made up of refugees living in Gaza, West Bank, Lebanon, and Syria • Term became associated with terrorism • These groups eventually melded in with other terrorist groups like the al-Fatah and the PLO
Al-FATAH • Formed on October 10, 1959 by about 20 Palestinians • Became main component of PLO under the leadership of Yasser Arafat. • Backed by Syria • 1965 - Terrorist raids against civilian targets in Israel • Raids were launched from Jordan, Lebanon, and Gaza
Original Covenant called for destruction of pre-1967 Israel • Changed covenant after Six-Day War in 1967 • Get rid of Israel and establish a Palestinian state in its place • Built by the 1948 refugees from the founding of Israel • Originally opposed the formation of the PLO fearing it would become a political opponent
Took control of the PLO in 1968 and was led by Yasser Arafat until his death in 2004. • Renounced terrorism in 1988 • Didn’t work, still carry out raids and terrorist acts • Today, the leader is MahmoudAbbas
PALESTINIAN LIBERATION ORGANIZATION • Founded in 1964 during a meeting of the Palestinian Congress • Trying to help the Palestinian refugees in Lebanon • Led by Yasser Arafat • Splinter groups • Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine • Popular Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine (and its General Command) • Al-Fatah
Primary goal was the destruction of the state of Israel • Led massive terrorist campaign for the next 10 years • 1974 – PLO decided to move away from terrorism and include political elements so they could negotiate • Rejectionist Front splintered off at this time. • Yasser Arafat and al-Fatah took over leadership of PLO
Under the leadership of Arafat • PLO gains recognition from United Nations and Arabs at the Rabat Conference • World begins to see PLO as negotiator • Israel panics • Invades Beirut in 1982 causing PLO to flee • Arafat tries negotiations, but it fails, and PLO members get upset • Arafat tries to make upset members happy by sanctioning hijacking of cruise ship – AchilleLauro. • Stupid move • Stupid hijackers shoot wheelchair bound Jew and dump his body overboard. • World is FURIOUS!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
1988 – Arafat recognizes state of Israel and condemns terrorism • Leads to talks that gets Palestinians partial self-rule • Palestinian Youth feel PLO moves too slow – they have joined with Hamas and Hezbollah to try to speed things up. • 2004 – Yasser Arafat dies and MahmoudAbbas took over PLO • PLO History
MUJAHIDEEN • Guerilla group that formed when the Soviets invaded Afghanistan in 1979 • Mujahid is one who strives or struggles on behalf of Islam • Fought mainly in the mountainous rural areas • Led by tribal leaders • Main financial backer was Osama Bin Laden • Had bases in Pakistan • Got arms from Pakistan and Iran • Did not want to wage aggressive jihad beyond Afghan borders • Disbanded back to their villages after Soviets left • 1992, captured Kabul and set up BurhanuddinRabbani as interim president.
TALIBAN • Students of Islamic Knowledge Movement • Mainly Sunni Muslim Pashtuns • Formed in 1979 as part of the Mujahideen • Finally made a move as an independent group in 1994 with the capture of Kahdahar • Pakistan chose a group of well-trained Taliban to protect convoys on a trade route between Pakistan and Central Asia • Began to challenge the mujahideen and finally captured Kabul in 1996
Sick of all of the years of fighting, the Afghan people welcomed the Shari’a Law established by the Taliban • They put Mullah Muhammad Omar as leader of the country • Brought back public executions and punishments like stoning and flogging in soccer stadiums • Banned kite-flying, television, music, and the internet
Men had to wear beards or be beaten • Women • No education • Stay home • Only leave home with male relative • Could be beaten or shot if the violated this • No fingernail polish – finger tips chopped off if caught with it
Taliban • Profited from smuggling (electronics mainly) • Profited from opium trade • Due to poor living conditions and weak economy many fled to Pakistan • Allowed terrorist groups to set up training camps in Afghanistan • Al-Qaeda and Bin Laden trained there. • Fell to U.S. invasion after refusing to turn over Bin Laden after 9/11/01.
Currently recognize and provide minimal support for the new Afghan government run by HamidKarzai • Taliban exists and funds it’s efforts through the illegal opium trade. • Taliban Video
HEZBOLLAH • Party of God, founded in 1982 in Lebanon. • Goal was to drive Israeli troops out of Lebanon • May 2000, they succeeded and the Israeli army pulled out of Lebanon • Was the brain child of clerics • Wanted to drive out Israelis, then transform Lebanon into an Iranian-style Islamic state • Abandoned the idea of an Islamic state but do hold seats in Lebanese Parliament
Political rhetoric calls for the destruction of Israel. • Iran funded Hezbollah • Hezbollah got into the hostage-taking business – especially kidnapping westerners • Had suicide bombers too – they were responsible for the 1983 suicide bombing of the U.S. Marine Barracks in Beirut.
Also has social services programs which make it popular with the Shia community • U.S. considers Hezbollah a terrorist group • Lebanon considers it a national resistance movement. • Began winning seats in the Lebanese Parliament in 1992. • Is still popular in Lebanon today. • Hezbollah History
HAMAS • Founded in 1988 by Ahmad Yassin • Yassin was the leader of the Mujama – established in 1973 by the Muslim Brotherhood • Mujama was established as a welfare charity • Off-shoot of the Muslim Brotherhood • Its charter is very anti-Semitic and pledges to rid Palestine of all Jews. • Founded to allow Brotherhood to participate in the first intefada
Three wings of Hamas • Political Wing • Produced leaflets • Raised funds • Recruited members • Coopted mosques • Intelligence Wing – al-Majid • Internal policing, especially in Gaza • Military Wing – ‘Izz al-Din al-Qassam brigades • Smallest wing • Operated in cells that were hard for the Israelis to track
Originally negotiated well with the Israeli government. • Negotiations ended when Hamas members kidnapped and killed two Israeli soldiers • Hamas did not support Saddam Hussein in the first Gulf War • This caused the Gulf states to shift funding from the PLO to Hamas. • Hamas eventually declared Israeli soldiers and all Israelis targets • Began suicide bombings in 1993 • Blacklisted by the U.S. and the European Union • Iran became its main supporter
2005 – Hamas joins PLO after MahmoudAbbas took over the PLO. • 2006 – Hamas officials swept Palestinian elections, defeating al-Fatah and PLO candidates. • Hamas and Israel
AL-QAEDA • Began with the mujahideen fighting the Soviets in Afghanistan • Means “the base” in Arabic • Led by Osama Bin Laden and Dr. Ayman al-Zawahiri • Financed them against the Soviets first • Financed them from Saudi Arabia after that • Kicked out of Saudi Arabia for protesting U.S. troops on Saudi soil during the Persian Gulf War in 1991
Moved his operations to Khartoum in Sudan • Attacked U.S. troops in Somalia • 1994 – Sudan succumbed to pressure from Saudi Arabia and the U.S. and kicked Bin Laden out • Bin Laden moved to Afghanistan • 1996 - Declared war on the U.S. • Orchestrated the 9/11/01 attack on the Twin Towers in NYC. • Remained in Afghanistan until the U.S. invasion in 2001
Al-Qaeda operates like a franchise • Doesn’t need a political state • Doesn’t need a specific conflict to fight • It provides financial and logistical support and name recognitions to groups all over the world
Principle Goals • Get Americans and American influence out of all Muslim nations • Destroy Israel • Topple pro-Western dictatorships in the Middle East • Establish an Islamic nation that follows the rules of the First Caliphs
Bin Laden’s 1998 Fatwa (religious decree): • Wage holy war on • The U.S. • American citizens • Jews • Apostates (Muslims who don’t agree with him) • This concept of thought is known as jihadism
Jihadism • At odds with nearly all Islamic religious thought • Began with two men: • Mohammad ibnAbd al-Wahhab – 18th century reformer • Says anything Islamic that was brought into the religion after Muhammed’s death is wrong. • Religious thought is known as Wahhabism • SayyidQutb – Egyptian scholar of the mid-20th century • Declared Western civilization the enemy of Islam • Denounced Middle Eastern leaders who did not adhere closely to Islam • Jihad was needed to defend AND purify Islam • Al-Qaeda