History • The first schools were set up by churches in the 11th century. Maria Theresa introduced compulsory school education in 1774. In the summer children didn´t go to school and they worked in the field.
Nowadays • At the present time, Schools are set up by churches, state or the schools could be a private. Attendance to the church and State schools are befree, pupils don‘t charge school fees.
Schoolyear • The school year begins on the first of September and finishes on 31st August. There are two termes, one from September to January, the other from February to June.
Holiday • School year breaks up for several holidays. • Pupils don’t go to school on two days at the end of October, • at Christmas, • on one day in February, • on 5 days in February or March, • at Easter (two days in March or April), • on several days called bank holiday. • After reciving their schools report in June pupils have two months of summer holidays.
Beginningtheschoolattendance • Future schoolboy is take to the school by the enrolment. Little schoolboy has to pass simple test. The children have to identify the color and shapes. Usually it is a small walk along the school building and children do some task. The parents have a right apply for deferment school attendance.
Grades + Subjects There are twogradesatprimaryschools. • Thefirst grade isfromtheageof 6 to 11. Thesecond grade isfromtheageof 12 to 15. Atthefirst grade pupilslearn to read, write, countandtheyhave P.E., Art, Music and Science. Attheageof 10, pupils start learningoneforeignlanguage. • Atthesecond grade pupilshaveCzech grammarandliterature, Maths, Physics, Biology, Chemistry, History, Geography, Music, Art, P.E., and IT. Attheageof 14 they start learningtheirsecondforeign language.
Classification Evaluationiscontinuousandatthe endofeach grade pupils are givenschool reports, which are givenmarksofeachsubjects. • First Grade • Most elementaryschoolsfortheevaluation on thefirst grade use a scalefromone to five, wherethenumberoneisthebestevaluationandfivemeansfail. • Ifthe pupil isevaluatedattheendofthesecond grade ofsomesubject by five, pupil has to do last classagain.
Second Grade • On the second grade there is a scale from one to five too, but at the school report is evaluated by words. • At the second grade are used mark: • excellent (výborný) • very well (chvalitebný) • good (dobrý) • enough (dostatečný) • poorly (nedostatečný) • If the pupil is evaluated at the school report of the second grade of some subject by poorly, he must take a correct exam. If he pass a exam, he may continued to next class. If not, the pupil must not continue at a next class.
Structure school • On the top of school is a headmaster, who has a deputy headmaster. It is many teachers at school. The teacher can be a form teacher. At school is employ the school servant. The large schools have a lot of students in one grade. The classrooms are marking by the number, which show the order of grade and a capital of Latin alphabet. But schools, which they have a small crowd of pupils, have to apply for exteption. In another way they have to close the school. The exteption is accorded for the first grade. When the school gets the exteption, two class are connect to the one.
Closureofschool • Primary school isn’t ending any special exam. • At the end of ninth class pupils entered to secondary school. • Some secondary school instead of exam used as a criterior for accemptance of pupil´s average of marks from last class of primary school.
Alternativeeducation • Some schools are called alternative schools. It has different way of education (connecting the subjects, school by the play, groups work,...). The scheme has to approve Department of Education. • Waldorf school – The school want to develop not only general knowledge, but also creative skills and social skills. The curriculum are based on the groups work. • Montessori - The Montessori method is a child centered alternative educational method for children, based on theories of child development originated by Italian educator Maria Montessori. The education consist in non-violent development the children. The method respect individuality and play up the self-activity. • Dalton school – “Children’s university school” The three primary rule: 1. freedom – obtain the responsibility, 2. self-activity, 3. cooperation • Home education – only first grade, The child teach the parents.