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  1. Measuring

  2. Liquid Measuring spoon or cup Blenders ¼ tsp, ½ tsp, 1 tsp, 1 tbs 1 cup=8 oz Labeled as cups, fl oz, ml

  3. Misuse Common mistake in cooking classes Will not turn out a consistent product

  4. liquid Hold at eye level Difficult to judge liquid level if not at eye level Use a clear glass measuring cup

  5. Dry ingredients • Can level granules by shaking side to side • Powder ingredients (cocoa or flour) • Use a spoon to fill measuring cup to a heaping level • Use a straight edge to scrape off excess • Brown sugar • Fill cup to overflowing, use back of a spoon to pack it down • Shortening—fill cup then pack down to get out air bubbles and make sure it’s an accurate measurement

  6. Kitchen Appliances Follow manufacturer’s directions for use of appliances Dishwasher, Stove/Range, Refrigerator, Microwave Small appliances—do not immerse in water unless they’re designed for it Clean with hot soapy water

  7. Proper Use • Use the appropriate tool for the job • Toaster to brown bagels, pop tarts, bread • Garbage disposal-make sure water is running while turning on • Don’t stick hand down hole to retrieve item

  8. Knives • Paring Knife • Peeling fruit, potatoes, cutting small pieces • Bread Knife • For slicing bread/bagels, serrated • Carving knife • For slicing meat • Chef’s knife • Used to chop or mince (chop very fine) onions/garlic and other items

  9. Kitchen Knives

  10. Other Kitchen Utensils Colander-draining pasta, cleaning and rinsing Grater—cheese, nutmeg Sifts dry ingredients like flour, baking powder Strainer—removes solids from liquids Mixer-hand or stand, used to mix ingredients and increase egg volume

  11. Cookware • Muffin Pan—cupcakes, muffins • Loaf pan—Bread, meat loaf • Cookie sheet— • Flat for biscuits, cookies • Casserole dish

  12. Measurement Abbreviations C. or c. = cup T. or Tbsp. = tablespoon t. or tsp. = teaspoon Measuring for changing recipe amounts

  13. Measurement Tips Coating the measuring cup or spoon with oil will help with sticky liquids such as syrup Measure liquid ingredients over an empty bowl so you don’t spill it in what you are mixing. To measure sifted flour, sift BEFORE measuring the amount needed

  14. Substitutes Bread crumbs= cracker crumbs Broth (Beef or Chicken)=1 bouillon cube plus 1 cup boiling water OR 1 tablespoon soy sauce plus enough water to make 1 cup OR 1 cup vegetable broth Salted butter=1 cup margarine OR 1 cup shortening plus 1/2 teaspoon salt OR 7/8 cup vegetable oil plus 1/2 teaspoon salt OR 7/8 cup lard plus 1/2 teaspoon salt

  15. Cooking/Preparation Tips • Sauté • Quickly fry ingredients (usually vegetables like onions, peppers) in a small amount of oil • Check cake for doneness by inserting a toothpick into the center of the cake. If it comes out clean the cake is done. • Use thermometer to check internal temperature on roasts or poultry. • Dovetailing • Do multiple jobs at one time • Make a food preparation schedule so the foods will all be ready on time. • Begin preparing items that take the longest time to cook, first.

  16. Recommended Temps Pork, Beef, Veal, Lamb whole cuts 145˚ Ground Beef 160˚ Poultry 165˚

  17. 8.04 Practice good manners when serving and eating food.

  18. Good Table Manners Based on consideration for others Don’t eat until everyone is at the table Thank host/hostess for meal when invited out. Don’t do anything until he/she does. Chew with mouth closed—don’t slurp or speak while chewing Napkin in lap—never on table Sit up straight in chair-posture Bring utensil to you, not face to plate Passing-if requested, only if you’re closest

  19. Using Utensils If right handed, hold knife in rt hand, fork in left hand with tines facing downward Use utensils from outside to in Don’t let utensils touch anything off of plate once it has been used Soup spoon sipped from the side

  20. Good Manners (cont’d) If you spill on someone else, don’t try to get it off (sexual harassment lawsuit) Only use fingers for finger foods (cookie, sandwich, pickles, fries, corn on cob, etc) Don’t pick your teeth at the table

  21. Proper Table Setting Plate center Knives, spoons on Right Forks and napkin on left Liquids (water) on right Solids (bread/app plate) on left DR—drink right

  22. Napkin w/ salad fork, dinner fork on top, serving plate (charger), salad plate, soup bowl, knife with serrated side facing plate, spoon, water glass above tip of knife, beverage glass to left of water glassNapkin to left, salad fork, dinner fork, serving plate (charger), dinner plate, soup bowl, knife (w/ serrated side facing plate, spoon, water glass above tip of knife, beverage glass to left of water glass

  23. Proper Table Setting The water glass is placed at the tip of the knife The soup spoon is placed on the soup bowl when you are finished with your soup The dinner fork is placed to the left of the plate The fork placed above the dinner plate is used for the dessert

  24. Types of Food Service • Buffet (Ideas?) • Bowls and platters of food are arranged on serving table. Dinner plates at one end, people serve themselves as they walk along the serving line. • English style • all courses are served at the table by the host or hostess. The service may be done with or without a maid. • Family Style • Food brought to the table in serving dishes. People serve themselves • Plate • Food placed on each plate in the kitchen and the plates are brought to the table No serving dishes are used and portion size can be controlled.

  25. Restaurant Etiquette To get your server’s attention, raise your hand. No need to shout, whistle, or frantically wave your arms around If something is not correct, give server a chance to correct it (not cooked properly, special attention not taken) What makes bad service? If it’s bad, ask to speak with a manager

  26. 8.05 Discuss career opportunities in the food industry