Behavior AssessmentHe Did What? Wanda Y. Wade, MEd., MBA, MSBAEEX 3221
Advanced Organizer • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=W0fJKvdjQgs&feature=related • Behavior • Behavior Intervention Process • Functional Behavior Assessment • Data Collection • Behavior Techniques
Remember……. HaimGinott I have come to the frightening conclusion that I am the decisive element in the classroom. It’s my personal approach that creates the climate and it is my daily mood that makes the weather. As a teacher, I possess a tremendous power to make a child’s life miserable or joyous. I can be a tool of torture or inspiration. I can humiliate or humor, hurt or heal. In all situations, it is my response that influences whether a crisis will be escalated or de-escalated and a child humanized or de-humanized. Teacher and Child, 1972
Why Do We Observe Students? • Observations can provide information about students’: • Academic skills • Motor skills • Communication skills • Social skills • Overall attitude or demeanor
What is Behavior? • Dead Man’s Test – Can a dead man do it?; e.g., Not swearing at peers vs talking to peers without swearing • Behavior-something someone does that is observable and measureable and can be verbal or nonverbal; behavior must be clearly defined and have a beginning and an ending (Maag, 1999)
What happens when teachers do not attend to behavior problems? • Disrupts students’ academic progress. • Decreases the amount of academic engaged time. • Hinders the identification of other academic problems.
Behavioral Intervention Process • Identify the Learner • Identify the Target behavior • Identify Conditions of Intervention • Identify Criteria for Acceptable performance
Identify the Learner Be specific… • Steve will say the sight words without spending more than 10 seconds on each word….. • Jason will be able to complete an outline map of Pennsylvania, including the major cities and rivers introduced in class……. • Stacey will paraphrase Dr. Martin Luther King's "I Have a Dream" address, mentioning …. • Michelle will underline all the words that are verbs….
Identify the Target Behavior State what the student will do…be specific • decrease the use of aggressive behaviors such as kicking, hitting, spitting, pulling hair, throwing objects (books, pencils, chair) biting and scratching, threatening and/or aggressive comments to staff and peers, and destruction of property. • say the sight words without spending more than 10 seconds on each word. • decrease the use of profanity.
Identify the Conditions of the Intervention • Verbal request or instructions • Josh, pick up the blue cup. • Written instructions or format • Draw a line to the items that match. • Demonstration • This is how you pick up the blue cup. • Materials to be used • Blue cup, red cup • Worksheet with ten items that match. • Environmental setting or timing • In the lunchroom • During independent work time • Manner of assistance • Independent • With partial physical assistance • With verbal prompts
Identify Criteria for Acceptable Performance • Types of Criterion statements: • Number or Percentage of Correct Responses • at least 60% completed and 75% attempted in class for at least 3 of 4 weeks. • Duration – length of time student performs the behavior • no more than 2 incomplete assignments per week for 3 consecutive weeks. • Latency – length of time between the instruction and student performs the behavior • no more than an average of 4 incidents per week for 3 consecutive weeks.
Behavioral Objectives Checklist • Is the behavior observable? • Can I count the number of times it occurs? • Can I count for how long it occurs? • Will a stranger know exactly what to look for? • Can I break down the target behavior into smaller behavioral components to make it more specific and observable?
Stop and ThinkWhat’s Wrong With These Objectives? • “Charles will expand his knowledge of the U.S. capitols.” • “Laura will gain an appreciation of friendships and will get along with her peers.” • Steven will learn the vocabulary words presented in the Acme reader.” • When presented with menu, Alan will order a meal.” • For three weeks, Jackson will get out of bed on time.” • Beatrice will be ready for bed each night for 1 month.” • “After watching the nightly news, Madeline will work on her homework for 1 hour.”
What is an FBA? • A process in which one examines the circumstances (or context) around the problem behavior and formulates a hypothesis as to the function the behavior is serving for the child (ONeil et. Al., 1997) • A process of gathering information that can be used to develop an effective Individualized Behavior Intervention plan (BIP)
When do you do an FBA? • When a behavior impedes learning or the learning of others. • Documented unsuccessful classroom interventions. • When considering a more restrictive environment due to behavior concerns. • When a student has received 10 days of suspension. • The behavior cannot be addressed solely through the classroom management plan. • An individualized behavior support plan is needed
Data Collection • Dimensions of Behavior to consider when choosing an observational system • Frequency: How often • Duration: How long • Rate: Numberof times per unit of time • Latency: Lengthof time between request and behavior
Data Collection Systems Structured • Anecdotal reports • Event recording • Time Sampling • Duration recording • Latency recording
Anecdotal Records • ABC =Antecedent-Behavior-Consequence • Define behavior • Measure frequency • Identify reinforcers and punishers • Identify pattern
Event Recording • Observe the student involved in behavior – each event recorded • Count behavior for specific length of time • Used with behaviors you can see – discrete behaviors are obvious or have an agreed upon definition • Not used for very high frequency behaviors
Interval Recording • Define behavior • Specify time period for observation (tape of beep every ten seconds) • Specify the length of the interval • The shorter the interval the more accurate the data • Record – behavior seen “+” on record sheet; not seen uses “–”on record sheet.
Time Sampling • Requires equal intervals of time during which the behavior is observed. • Similar to interval but usually minutes long interval rather than seconds. • Allows observation of behavior over longer periods of time. • Observer notes on data sheet whether or not the behavior occurred during the interval.
Duration Recording • Emphasizes measures of time rather than instance of behavior. • Primarily concerned about the length of time the behavior is exhibited. • Suitable for behaviors that have identifiable beginning and ending. • Average duration or total duration are basic ways to record.
Latency Recording • Measures how long a student takes to begin a behavior when given the prompt to begin
Duration & Latency Data Sheets • Includes: • Same information as other recording techniques • Duration recording also includes • Time between when the response was initiated and when it ended • Duration of time between the two • Latency recording also includes • Time between delivery of prompt and initiation of response • Latency is time between the two
Factors that may affect data collection • Reliability – between observers • Reactivity – observer in setting • Observer drift – change in definition while observing unbeknownst to observer • Complexity of coding system • Expectancy
Stop & Think In Groups of 2-3: Using your text book, internet, personal experiences or other resources as a guide, prepare an observation recording sheet for: • Frequency data collection • Interval data collection • Time sampling data collection • Duration data collection • Latency data collection
Questionnaires and Interviews: • Questions about a student’s behavior or academic concerns, which may be answered by the student, parent, or teacher. • May be conducted by different members of the multidisciplinary team. • Formal/informal • Structured/unstructured.
Sociograms & Ecological Assessment Sociogram Ecological • Enables the teacher to obtain information about group dynamics and structure of the classroom. • Questions are designed so all members of the class will be asked to answer them. • Can identify class stars, social isolates, etc. • Analyzes the student’s total learning environment. • Includes the student’s interaction with the teacher and others, the teacher’s interaction with other students, and the physical environment, among others.
Summary of an Interview Should Include: • Perceptions of the primary problem and its cause, • Attempts that have been made to solve/address the problem, • Recent changes in the problem’s severity. • Student strengths and weaknesses.
Sentence Completion Instruments • Scored more subjectively • Stems or beginnings of sentences that the student is required to finish. • Comments analyzed for themes rather than analyzing each sentence independently.
Drawing Tests • Attempt to screen the student’s feelings about self, home, and family. • Examples include Draw-A-Person, House-Tree-Person, and Kinetic Family Drawings. • Newer versions of scoring systems include standardization and developmental information.
Apperception Tests • A set of picture or story cards that have been designed to elicit responses about emotional issues. • Examples include: • Children's Apperception Test (CAT) and • Roberts Apperception Test for Children.
Discussion Question • A student who functions within the sub-average range of intelligence but who exhibits age-appropriate behavior outside the classroom (should/should not) be placed in a setting for MR. • Why or why not?
Assessing Adaptive Behavior • Describes how well a student adapts to his/her environment. • Must be considered before a person meets the criteria for mental retardation. • Emphasized as one possible method of promoting nonbiased assessment of culturally different students.
Research Results on Adaptive Behavior • Adaptive behavior has a moderate relationship between intelligence but a low relationship with school achievement. • Adaptive behavior is predictive of certain aspects of future vocational performance. • There are few race and ethnic group differences on adaptive behavior scales.
Most Commonly Used Adaptive Behavior Scales • Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales • AAMR Adaptive Behavior Scale-School, 2nd Edition • Adaptive Behavior Inventory • Adaptive Behavior Inventory for Children
Final Group Activity • As a small group (2-3 members) • Review the data on Tom • Write a “present level of functioning statement” • Write two goals based on the PLEP • Determine what type of data you will collect. • Develop 2-3 intervention ideas
Stop & Think Tom receives special education to provide support for his emotional difficulties and learning disability in two resource rooms. These classes provide instruction in math, language arts, reading, social skills, and social studies. He is in the regular classroom for specials, lunch, and science. He rides a special bus with a paraprofessional to school. Thomas has Tourette’s Syndrome, a learning disability that manifests itself in reading and language arts, and an emotional disturbance. Symptoms of Tourette’s lead him to display distracting tics and vocalize curses during the usual course of the day. This sometimes causes his classmates to make uncomplimentary comments. His emotional and learning disabilities often lead to frustrating academic and social situations. When he becomes frustrated he often throws objects (books, book packs, pencils) turns over furniture (chairs or tables), and curses obscenities at the adults and other students present in the classroom.