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Chapter 17 Reactions of Aromatic Compounds

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  1. Organic Chemistry, 6th EditionL. G. Wade, Jr. Chapter 17Reactions of Aromatic Compounds

  2. Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution Electrophile substitutes for a hydrogen on the benzene ring. Chapter 17

  3. Step 1: Attack on the electrophile forms the sigma complex. Step 2: Loss of a proton gives the substitution product. => Mechanism Chapter 17

  4. - + - + Bromination of Benzene • Requires a stronger electrophile than Br2. • Use a strong Lewis acid catalyst, FeBr3. Chapter 17

  5. Chlorination and Iodination • Chlorination is similar to bromination. Use AlCl3 as the Lewis acid catalyst. • Iodination requires an acidic oxidizing agent, like nitric acid, which oxidizes the iodine to an iodonium ion. Chapter 17

  6. Nitration of Benzene Use sulfuric acid with nitric acid to form the nitronium ion electrophile. NO2+ then forms a sigma complex with benzene, loses H+ to form nitrobenzene. Chapter 17

  7. Sulfonation Sulfur trioxide, SO3, in fuming sulfuric acid is the electrophile. Chapter 17

  8. => Nitration of Toluene • Toluene reacts 25 times faster than benzene. The methyl group is an activating group. • The product mix contains mostly ortho and para substituted molecules. Chapter 17

  9. => Sigma Complex Intermediate is more stable if nitration occurs at the orthoor para position. Chapter 17

  10. Activating, O-, P-Directing Substituents • Alkyl groups stabilize the sigma complex by induction, donating electron density through the sigma bond. • Substituents with a lone pair of electrons stabilize the sigma complex by resonance. Chapter 17

  11. Substitution on Anisole Chapter 17

  12. => The Amino Group Aniline, like anisole, reacts with bromine water (without a catalyst) to yield the tribromide. Sodium bicarbonate is added to neutralize the HBr that’s also formed. Chapter 17

  13. Summary ofActivators => Chapter 17

  14. Deactivating Meta-Directing Substituents • Electrophilic substitution reactions for nitrobenzene are 100,000 times slower than for benzene. • The product mix contains mostly the meta isomer, only small amounts of the orthoand para isomers. • Meta-directors deactivate all positions on the ring, but the meta position is less deactivated. => Chapter 17

  15. Ortho Substitutionon Nitrobenzene => Chapter 17

  16. Para Substitution on Nitrobenzene => Chapter 17

  17. Meta Substitutionon Nitrobenzene => Chapter 17

  18. Structure of Meta-Directing Deactivators • The atom attached to the aromatic ring will have a partial positive charge. • Electron density is withdrawn inductively along the sigma bond, so the ring is less electron-rich than benzene. => Chapter 17

  19. Summary of Deactivators => Chapter 17

  20. More Deactivators => Chapter 17

  21. Halobenzenes • Halogens are deactivating toward electrophilic substitution, but are ortho, para-directing! • Since halogens are very electronegative, they withdraw electron density from the ring inductively along the sigma bond. • But halogens have lone pairs of electrons that can stabilize the sigma complex by resonance. => Chapter 17

  22. Ortho and para attacks produce a bromonium ionand other resonance structures. No bromonium ion possible with meta attack. => Sigma Complexfor Bromobenzene Chapter 17

  23. Summary of Directing Effects => Chapter 17

  24. Multiple Substituents The most strongly activating substituent will determine the position of the next substitution. May have mixtures. Chapter 17

  25. Friedel-Crafts Alkylation • Synthesis of alkyl benzenes from alkyl halides and a Lewis acid, usually AlCl3. • Reactions of alkyl halide with Lewis acid produces a carbocation which is the electrophile. • Other sources of carbocations: alkenes + HF, or alcohols + BF3. Chapter 17

  26. Limitations ofFriedel-Crafts • Reaction fails if benzene has a substituent that is more deactivating than halogen. • Carbocations rearrange. Reaction of benzene with n-propyl chloride and AlCl3 produces isopropylbenzene. • The alkylbenzene product is more reactive than benzene, so polyalkylation occurs. => Chapter 17

  27. Friedel-CraftsAcylation • Acyl chloride is used in place of alkyl chloride. • The acylium ion intermediate is resonance stabilized and does not rearrange like a carbocation. • The product is a phenyl ketone that is less reactive than benzene. => Chapter 17

  28. Mechanism of Acylation Chapter 17

  29. End of Chapter 17 Chapter 17