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Expansion and Crisis

Expansion and Crisis

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Expansion and Crisis

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  1. Expansion and Crisis Section2

  2. Main Idea • Economic and social problems brought down the Roman empire

  3. People to Meet • Hannibal • Scipio • Tiberius Gracchus • Gaius Gracchus • Marius Sulla • Julius Caesar • Octavian • Marc Antony

  4. Places to Locate • Carthage • Currently, Tunis

  5. Expansion and Crisis Roman Legions

  6. Introduction • Rome threatened by neighbors 500 B.C. to 300 B.C. • Conquered them • Forced them to ally with Rome • Until 264 B.C., Rome ruled entire peninsula

  7. Roman Legions • Rome’s success in war was due to its strong army and to its small mobile fighting units

  8. Roman Legions • All males had to serve • Changed from the Greek phalanx to small fighting units of 60 to 120 soldiers—more mobile • Could defeat the phalanx

  9. Roman Legions • Well trained • Deserters punished by death • Rome treated conquered foes well • Could keep own governments if they fought Rome’s wars

  10. Roman Legions • Gave the conquered partial rights—some even made citizens • Rome set up “coloniae”—permanent military settlements

  11. Rome Against Carthage • Carthage became Mediterranean’s wealthiest city • Conquered Spanish coast • Conquered most of Sicily • Romans decided to stop their expansion

  12. The First Punic War • In 264 B.C., Carthage threatened to seize the Strait of Messina • Rome sent a security force and war broke out

  13. The First Punic War • In 264 B.C. the Roman army conquered most of Carthage’s colonies in Sicily, but the Carthage’s naval superiority at first gave Carthage the advantage at sea

  14. The First Punic War • Undaunted, the Romans eventually built a larger fleet and forced Carthage to retreat

  15. The First Punic War • Rome used new tactic—large grappling hooks “hook” Carthage’s ships and the Romans boarded them to defeat them • War lasted from 264 B.C. to 241 B.C. • Carthage was forced to pay Rome an indemnity—payment for damages

  16. The Second Punic War • In 221 B.C. Hannibal, who had become general of the Carthaginian army in Spain, grabbed on of Rome’s allied cities in Spain

  17. The Second Punic War • Hannibal then took 40,000 troops and 40 elephants across the alps to fight the Romans • Half his force and half the elephants died on the journey

  18. The Second Punic War • Outnumbered, Hannibal still defeated the Romans • By 216 B.C., Hannibal had nearly destroyed the Roman army

  19. The Second Punic War • Rome raised a new army • Led by General Publius Scipio, they attacked Carthage, forcing Hannibal to return to Carthage

  20. The Second Punic War • Scipio defeats Hannibal’s army at Zama, just outside Carthage in 202 B.C. • Carthage gave up lands in Spain and warships and paid indemnity

  21. The Third Punic War • After 50 years, Carthage grew to greatness again • No threat to Rome • Senator Cato, for years, had ended all his speeches with, “Carthagodelendaest”--Carthage must be destroyed

  22. The Third Punic War • In 146 B.C. the Romans burned Carthage to the ground and sold its population into slavery • Legend is that the Romans placed salt on the earth to keep crops from growing

  23. The Third Punic War • Victory over Carthage gave Rome complete control of the Mediterranean

  24. The Punic Wars • The timeframe of the Punic Wars was from 264 B.C. to 146 B.C., a period of 118 years

  25. The Republic in Crisis • Rome now owned/controlled most of the Mediterranean area • Romans began referring to the Mediterranean as “our sea”

  26. The Republic in Crisis • Between 230 B.C. and 130 B.C., Rome brought most of the eastern Mediterranean area under its rule

  27. The Republic in Crisis • The Romans were powerful but they faced growing social unrest • Conquered peoples complained about corrupt officials stealing wealth for personal gain

  28. The Republic in Crisis • The Roman Empire was a vast territory • Rome’s government established to govern small city-state • Political problems led to social and economic upheaval

  29. Exploiting the Provinces • Rome organized non-Italian territories into provinces • Pay tribute to Rome • Recognize Rome’s authority

  30. Exploiting the Provinces • Senate appointed governors called proconsuls • Often accepted bribes and robbed provinces • Publicans—people who collected taxes—also took money

  31. Exploiting the Provinces • Taking money became an accepted way of life for the rich to get richer

  32. Exploiting the Provinces • The Provinces rebelled due to unfair treatment • Roman legions had to be stationed in the provinces to keep order

  33. Exploiting the Provinces • Most provinces adjusted • Jews in Palestine resisted • Romans sacked Jerusalem in A.D. 70

  34. Changing the Countryside • Roman government expanded into provinces and acquired property • Holdings were rented to wealthy Romans • Created large estates called “latifundia” • Slaves of conquered lands worked the farms

  35. Changing the Countryside • Slaves resulted in less labor costs for growing crops…less than farmers in Italy • Latifundia owners captured the grain market and brought wealth to provinces

  36. Changing the Countryside • Latifundia owners forced small farmers out of business • Proconsuls and publicans bought up small farms in Rome to create latifundia

  37. Changing the Countryside • Proconsuls and publicans devoted latifundia to sheep ranching and raising olives and fruit • Put even more farmers out of work

  38. Crowding the Cities • Slave labor replaced paid labor • Landless farmers streamed into the cities looking for employment

  39. Crowding the Cities • Jobs were not available for former farmers • They became the urban jobless and poor

  40. Crowding the Cities • The urban poor barely eked out a living • Supported any politician who promised them “bread and circuses”—cheap food and free amusements

  41. Crowding the Cities • Gap between rich and poor widened • Upper class lived in fear of revolts • Rome stationed soldiers in strategic locations to prevent civil strife

  42. Crowding the Cities • Spartacus led 70,000 slaves and plundered the countryside • Rome finally crushed Spartacus, but not without great cost Spartacus led 70,000 slaves and plundered the countryside • Rome finally crushed Spartacus, but not without great cost

  43. Crowding the Cities • Urban poor and new middle class increased • Equites (EH*kwuh*TEEZ) (or knights) • Just below patricians • Saw more values in wealth than character • Influenced Romans to seek similar values

  44. Link to the Past • Discuss • Are we creating a permanent underclass in America? Who are they? • Are American mainstream jobs being taken? Is the middle class threatened? • Do people vote for politicians who promise them free “bread and circuses’ • Divide into groups and report back

  45. Reformers and Generals • Many were concerned with helping the plebeians • Two brothers tried to enact laws that would help but met with violent ends

  46. Reformers and Generals • Feuding among Rome’s leading families weakened Rome • Tiberius Gracchus (tribune) proposed limiting the size of latifundia and was killed in street fighting • Gaius Gracchus, his brother, was killed 10 years later proposing the same reforms • Wealthiest Romans keep the system

  47. Crowding the Cities • General Gaius Marius (and other generals) • Tried to help poor • Army leaders came to power in Rome and privately paid unemployed poor to serve in the army

  48. Crowding the Cities • For the first time soldiers owed allegiance to commander, not the republic • General Lucius Sulla used army against Marius and civil war broke out

  49. Crowding the Cities • The usual farmers had been decimated by government actions to enlarge farms into latifundia

  50. Marius and Sulla • Raised armies and fought each other in the streets of Rome for ultimate power • Sulla finally won after 6 years of fighting • The practice of using the army to gain political power was copied by Julius Caesar • Violence overtook law