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The Executive Branch

The Executive Branch. Article II of the Constitution. Roles of the President. 1. Chief of Party. 2. Commander-in-Chief. Roles of the President. 3. Chief Executive. 4. Chief of State. Roles of the President. 5. Chief Diplomat. 6. Chief Legislator. Roles of the President.

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The Executive Branch

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  1. The Executive Branch Article II of the Constitution

  2. Roles of the President 1. Chief of Party 2. Commander-in-Chief

  3. Roles of the President 3. Chief Executive 4. Chief of State

  4. Roles of the President 5. Chief Diplomat 6. Chief Legislator

  5. Roles of the President 7. Chief Administrator 8. Chief Citizen

  6. Qualifications of the President • Article II of the Constitution sets out 3 qualifications for the President • Age: at least 35 years or older • JFK was youngest: 43 • Reagan was oldest: 69 • Natural-born US citizen • Must have lived in the US for at least 14 years • Note: No other formalrestrictions are mentioned such as gender, class, social standing, etc. • Since there are over 100 million Americans that meet the above stated qualifications there must be additional informal requirements to further limit the number of people who run for office

  7. Presidential Term Limit • Serves 4 year terms • George Washington set the precedent for serving only two terms… …until FDR got elected to 4 terms • The 22nd Amendment passed in 1945 • Can be elected to 2 terms • A maximum of 10 years total • If they finish out the last two years of the prior President, they can go on to be elected for two terms • 2 + (4 * 2) = 10

  8. Presidential Pay and Benefits • Pay: • 1789: $25,000/year • 2011: $400,000 plus $50,000/year for expense • The Constitution forbids the President from receiving anything else from the government… …except for… • Perks to the job: • White House: 132 room mansion on 18.3 acres • Their own staff and cars • Air Force One and Marine One • Camp David—hideaway resort in Maryland • Free healthcare, travel and entertainment funds • …and of course telling all of us what to do

  9. Powers of the President

  10. President’s National Security Powers • Serves as the Commander-in-Chief of the armed forces • Can authorize the use of troops without a direct declaration of war from Congress • Make treaties with other nations • Senate must approve any treaty before it becomes official • Can nominate ambassadors to other nations • Again, he must get a majority Senate approval • Can receive foreign ambassadors/leaders

  11. President’s Legislative Powers • Gives State of Union speech • Tries to convince Congress to act on certain issues • Can recommend legislation to Congress • Cannot write bills. He can propose an idea for the bill but a member of Congress must submit it for him (Obamacare) • Call Congress to a special session • Can sign/veto laws that are passed by Congress

  12. President’s Administrative Powers • “Take care that the laws be faithfully executed” –Article II, section 3 • Appoints the heads of each of the Executive Branch departments, Cabinet positions, and agencies • Also appoints ambassadors, SC justices, and other officials (with Senate approval) **President names most of the names for the top spots of the Federal government. They add up to only a handful of the +2.8 million employees but they are the one’s who hold most of the power.

  13. President’s Judicial Powers • Appoints Federal judges (with Senate approval) • Grants reprieves and pardons for Federal crimes, except for impeachment • Reprieve: postponement of execution • Pardon: legal forgiveness of a crime

  14. Order of Presidential Succession • Vice President – Joe Biden • Speaker of the House – John Boehner • President Pro Tempore – Dan Inouye • Secretary of State – Hillary Clinton (4-19 are Cabinet positions in order of creation) 19. Secretary of Homeland Security – Janet Napolitano

  15. The Federal Bureaucracy

  16. What is a bureaucracy? • Definition: A large, complex administrative structure that handles the everyday business of an organization • 3 Main Features • Hierarchical Structure: built like a pyramid with a chain of command • Job Specialization: each bureaucrat has certain, defined duties and responsibilities • Formalized Rules: does its work according to a set of established regulations and procedures

  17. The President Executive Office of the President Executive Departments & The President’s Cabinet Independent agencies

  18. Executive Office of the President • President’s closest personal advisors • Located mostly in the West (and East Wing) of the White House and the Executive Office Building. • Help the President carry out the duties of the Chief Executive. • Examples: Chief of Staff, VP, Counsel to the President, Press Secretary, etc.

  19. The Cabinet and Ocean’s 11 Card Dealer Guy Leader Guy Logistics Guy Driver Guys Demolitions Guy Tech Guy Money Guy Acrobat Guy Imitation Guy Con Artist Guy

  20. Cabinet and Executive Departments • Each Department (which employs thousands of people) is headed by a “Secretary”, except for the Department of Justice which is headed by the “Attorney General” • The 14 Secretaries and the Attorney General make up the President’s Cabinet • Cabinet positions are created as deemed necessary. • Precedent set by George Washington • Video:http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xxSvi6JCCfk&feature=related

  21. Independent Agencies *There are more than 150 total agencies* 1. Independent Executive Agencies • Like Executive Departments, but do not have Cabinet status. • Examples: NASA / CIA / FBI / IRS / NSA 2. Regulatory Commissions • Regulate part of the economy • Example: Federal Communications Commission (FCC); Federal Elections Commission (FEC) 3. Government Corporations • Businesses the government owns / runs. • Example: U.S. Postal Service 4. WEBSITE: http://www.usa.gov/Agencies/Federal/All_Agencies/index.shtml

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