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The Executive Branch

The Executive Branch. Chapter 9. Essential Questions. What roles does the President play? Which role is the most important? How much power does the President really have? What is the President’s role in the separation of powers? How do the executive departments and agencies help society?.

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The Executive Branch

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  1. The Executive Branch Chapter 9

  2. Essential Questions What roles does the President play? Which role is the most important? How much power does the President really have? What is the President’s role in the separation of powers? How do the executive departments and agencies help society?

  3. Roles of the President The President is the head of the executive branch. Executive Branch: the branch of government responsible for executing, or carrying out, the law. The President also sets goals for the nation and develops policies.

  4. How The Presidency Began • Ways to limit the powers of the President: • Limit to the # of terms in office • President CANNOT make laws • Congress approves many presidential decisions • Congress can remove a President from office • Supreme Court decides if Presidents’ actions are constitutional • Qualifications and Salary: • Must be at least 35 years old • Natural-born citizen of the United States • Must live in the U.S, for at least 14 years • Yearly salary is set by Congress

  5. Leadership Roles • Chief Executive • Head of the executive branch • Execute laws (decide how they are carried out) • Makes broad decisions – leaves details to other officials through executive orders • Executive orders: rules and regulations that government must follow • Power to appoint 4,000 executive branch officials • Congress must approve many top appointments

  6. Leadership Roles • Commander in Chief: • Head of the armed forces • Makes the MOST IMPORTANT military decisions • Often listens to advisers for less important military decisions • Able to send troops to foreign countries for a short period of time without Congress declaring war.

  7. Leadership Roles • Chief Diplomat: • Most important representative of the U.S. in international relations • Foreign Policy: the set of plans for guiding our nation’s relationships with other countries • Powers are not really limited • Ambassador: the official representatives to foreign governments • President appoints ambassadors, Congress approves them • Executive Agreements: agreements with other countries that do not need Senate approval • Set goals for trade, or make promises to give aid to other countries

  8. Leadership Roles • Legislative Leader • Influences what laws should be and how they should be enforced. • Congress is expected to consider the Presidents ideas. • State of the Union Address outlines foreign and domestic policy • Domestic Policy: a set of plans for dealing with national problems • President can call meetings with members of Congress to support his programs. • President can influence congress through the power of the veto (Why is this important?) • Congress has only overridden 4% of 2,500 vetoes. • President outlines how money is to be raised and spent for his programs.

  9. Leadership Roles • Judicial Powers: • President appoints Judges to the Supreme Court, but Senate has to confirm them. • President can • put off or reduce punishment of someone convicted of a crime in federal court • do away with a punishment through granting a pardon or release someone from current punishment.

  10. Roles created through Tradition • Head of Political Party: • Leaders of the Political Party they represent • Helps to advance the party by raising money and speaking at public functions • Chief of State: • Expresses the values and goals of the American people • Ceremonial duties such as greeting visiting foreign leaders • Stands for national unity and as a symbol of the United States

  11. Organizing the Executive Branch • Bureaucracy: an organization of government departments, agencies, and offices • Hired as permanent employees, not just for one President • Administration: team of executive branch officials • Help lead 3 main parts of the executive branch • Executive Office of the President • Executive departments • Independent agencies • Cabinet: group of policy advisers to the President

  12. Organizing the Executive Branch • White House Staff • Most trusted advisers and assistants • Give advice about national security, economy, etc. • Includes the Chief of Staff, key advisers, secretaries, legal experts, speechwriters, office workers, and researchers • Appointed by the President without Senate approval • Vice President • Presides over Senate under the Constitution • President decides how active VP is • Special Advisory Groups • Deals with special issues, domestic and foreign • Office of Management and Budged (OMB) • National Security Council (NSC)

  13. Executive Departments Currently 15 executive departments Form the largest part of the executive branch Each department helps to fulfill one or more of the President’s duties.

  14. Independent Agencies • Executive Agencies: • Under direct control of the President (can remove directors at any time) • Most important groups: • National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) • Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) • Regulatory Commissions: • Carries out rules for certain business or economic activity. • Federal Communications Commission (FCC) – rules for radio and television • Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) – safety standards for products found around the house

  15. Independent Agencies • Government Corporations: • Provides public services that are too risky or expensive for private businesses to undertake. • U.S. Postal Service • Civil Services: • Government workers (civil servants) are hired based on merit (tests) • President chooses fewer than 1% of workers in the executive branch

  16. Presidents and Power • Treaties: formal agreements between nations • The President does not need Senate approval to meet with leaders of foreign countries • The Senate has the power to reject treaties, but usually follow what the President sees as necessary • Executive Privilege: the right to keep some information secret from Congress and the courts • Usually for reasons of national security (safety)

  17. Jefferson and the Louisiana Purchase Jefferson had the opportunity to buy the Louisiana Territory for $15 million from France (Napoleon) This purchase would double the size of the U.S. He didn’t know what to do because the Constitution didn’t say that the President had the power to buy territory Jefferson consulted his advisors (including Secretary of State James Madison) He decided to accept Napoleon’s offer The Senate ratified the treaty and Congress agreed to pay France for the territory

  18. Truman and the Steel Mills In 1952 during the Korean War Steelworkers said they wouldn’t work unless their demands were met Truman placed the Secretary of Commerce in control of the Steel Mills Steel companies said the President has no right to take over private property Truman said he acted in the best interest of American soldiers who were fighting in war Supreme Court said that the President had no right to take private property even in the event of a national emergency

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