Developing Functional Behavior Teams At Your School Welcome to: August 12, 2008 We want your questions, feedback, and suggestions. But, there may not be enough time to take them all during the presentation. Please write and submit them at the presentation end. Thanks!
Presenters(in order of presentation): • Psychological Services: Tracy Schatzberg • School Psychologist: Etta Rahming • Guidance Counselor: Bonnie Anzalone • Social Worker: Alex Smith
Handouts • We are promoting “paperless” communication to save district funds and the environment. • “Handouts” are available online as a Powerpoint presentation and PDF document. (The website address appears later.) • You may edit the Powerpoint presentation for training purposes at your school.
The little red star… • Our time for completing this presentation is limited. • In some parts, we can only highlight the key points. • Additional details are provided throughout the presentation.
The little red star… • Our time for completing this presentation is limited. • In some parts, we can only highlight the key points. • Additional details are provided throughout the presentation. • Frames with a red star in the upper right corner include details for later study.
Broad Goals • Explore methods to work more efficiently on Functional Behavior Assessments (FBA) and Behavior Intervention Plans (BIP) • Remove barriers and build the infrastructure • Assure compliance with laws and related rules • Provide high quality services to all students with behavior challenges
Objectives • Answer “Why build a FBA-BIP team?” • Review training methods to strengthen team skills • Discover new tools • Determine when and how to seek expert support for your team • Examine how to develop and operate your team
Why Do Students and Schools Need FBAs and BIPs “It’s the right thing to do.” Etta Rahming, School Psychologist
Exclusionary Disciplinary Actions Suspensions 2007-2008 - Gen. Ed. + ESE(OSS, ISS, ATOSS and Bus Suspension) • Elementary School • 4,135 Students • 15,857 Days of Suspension • 79,285 Hours of Instruction Lost • Middle School • 13,374 Students • 109,981 Days of Suspension • 549,905 Hours of Instruction Lost • High School • 16,513 Students • 110,545 Days of Suspension • 552,725 Hours of Instruction Lost
Suspensions 2007-2008 - Gen. Ed. + ESE(OSS, ISS, ATOSS and Bus Suspension) • Alternative Education • 591 Students • 11,691 Days of Suspension • 58,455 Hours of Instruction Lost • Career Centers • 486 Students • 2,925 Days of Suspension • 14,625 Hours of Instruction Lost
Suspensions 2007-2008 - Gen. Ed. + ESE(OSS, ISS, ATOSS and Bus Suspension) • ESE Centers • 299 Students • 2,778 Days of Suspension • 13,890 Hours of Instruction Lost • Youth Services • 12 Students • 86 Days of Suspension • 430 Hours of Instruction Lost
Suspension Totals • 35,410 Students (Duplicated Count) • 253,863 Days of Suspension • 1,269,315 Hours of Instruction Lost Lost instructional hours compound problems with academic frustration and failure, exacerbate behavior challenges, and thereby increase the student’s risk of school failure, dropout, and/or exclusion.
Exclusionary disciplinary actions Are used disproportionately for students with Emotional/Behavioral Disabilities (EBD): 333 ESE Student Change of Placements (2007-08) For students with EBD, (whose disability is most likely to be manifested behaviorally), the analysis is: 7% Total Students With Disabilities 40% Students whose actions resulted in a Change of Placement
Exclusionary disciplinary actions Are used disproportionately for some minority students: Average Ethnicity Proportions of Suspended Gen. Ed. + ESE Students (2007-08) ENROLLEDSUSPENDED • Indian 1% 1% • Multiracial 5% 5% • Hispanic 27%26% • Asian 3%1% • White 42% 29% • Black 22% 38%
Exclusionary disciplinary actions: • May inadvertently increase the frequency, duration, and intensity of some student behaviors. Examples: • Out-of-School Suspensions may reinforce problem behaviors by: • allowing the student to avoid or escape schoolwork. • allowing the student to access high potency reinforcers (video games, sex, alcohol, drugs) in the community. • Fail to teach alternative behaviors • May appear to be coercive and result in student counter-control behaviors, severe aggression, harm to self, or other serious behavior changes • Could be reduced by early and effective FBAs and behavioral interventions
What Are the Potential Negative Outcomes? The risks of failure in school are severe. Students who receive ineffective interventions and drop out, or are excluded, from school can experience: • Functional illiteracy • Fewer paths of opportunity after school • Adult life of poverty • Dependence on social welfare systems • Incarceration • Substance abuse • Health insurance gaps, health problems, early death What are the costs to society? Or, our schools?
Reasons for Building FBA-BIP Teams To assure that students who are at risk of, or who have experienced, exclusionary disciplinary actions have received: • Adequate FBAs • BIPs that containscientific, research-based interventions • BIPs that were implemented for a reasonable time period • Data that demonstrates the BIP was implemented • Data that demonstrates intervention integrity
Reasons for Building FBA-BIP Teams To meet the behavioral intervention needs of General Education and Special Education students: • reduce ineffective disciplinary actions • provide better universal and targeted group interventions • provide better individualized FBAs and BIPs, when warranted
Reasons for Building FBA-BIP Teams To meet the behavioral intervention needs of General Education and Special Education students: • prevent the severe negative outcomes associated with school failure and dropping out
Is There A Better Way To Identify Students Who May Need FBA-BIPs? Tracy Schatzberg, Psychological Services
Early identification of students who may need FBA-BIPs • New online district discipline data system (known as “Crystal Enterprises” or “Business Objects”) • Permits better Tier 1 Universal Screening • School access to their current site information on demand • Can print the reports or export to other formats such as PDF or Excel
Early identification of students who may need FBA-BIPs June-July 2008 - Orientation of Administrators August 2008 – Schools form Behavior (or Performance) Leadership Teams with Student Support Staff August–December 2008 - Area-Based Team Training: • Team Member Skills & Roles • Streamlining Data Entry & Online Data Access • 3-Tier Problem Solving Models • Interventions (Selection and Implementation) • Problem-Solving & Data-based decision making (RTI) with STAT & the Professional Learning Community • School Improvement Plans Proposed: Online discipline data collection system
What Are The Laws and Rules Impacting FBAs and BIPs? “Besides being the right thing to do, it’s the law.”
Remember… • Frames with a red star in the upper right corner include details for later study.
IDEA 2004: FBAs and BIPs for ESE students • Part E: Procedural Safeguards • Discipline Procedures • §300.530 Authority of school personnel. (Excerpts) • Complete text: http://www.wrightslaw.com/idea/index.htm
(d) Services. (1) A child with a disability who is removed from the child’s current placement pursuant to paragraphs (c), or (g) of this section must-- • (ii) Receive, as appropriate, a functional behavioral assessment, and behavioral intervention services and modifications, that are designed to address the behavior violation so that it does not recur.
(e) Manifestation determination. • Within 10 school days of any decision to change the placement of a child with a disability because of a violation of a code of student conduct,… (f) If the LEA, the parent, and relevant members of the IEP Team make the determination that the conduct was a manifestation of the child’s disability, the IEP Team must- (1) Either-– • (i) Conduct a functional behavioral assessment,unless the LEA had conducted a functional behavioral assessment before the behavior that resulted in the change of placement occurred, and implement a behavioral intervention planfor the child; or • (ii) If a behavioral intervention plan already has been developed, review the behavioral intervention plan, and modify it, as necessary, to address the behavior;…
EBD Technical Assistance Paper • TAP #: K12: 2008-53 • New from Florida DOE May 9, 2008 • Complete text: http://www.fldoe.org/ese/pub-home.asp
Purposes of State Board of Education rule To ensure that students with emotional/behavioral disabilities (E/BD): • receive appropriate interventions in general education settings • are identified in a responsive manner; • and, when necessary, receive special education services in the least restrictive setting.
Key features • School-based intervention teams apply a problem-solving process to develop evidence-based interventions of sufficient intensity to match the student’s needs. • In HCPS, these teams are STAT and the problem-solving process is a multi-tier RTI approach to providing instruction and intervention, at increasing levels of intensity, based on student response to each intervention. • FBA is a comprehensive problem-solving process to develop an intervention.
Key features Before implementing individual interventions (e.g., FBA and BIP), there should be evidence that: • school, • classroom, and • small group interventions are effective with the majority of students - In HCPS, this is an area for ongoing emphasis.
Key features Interventions should be implemented: • for a reasonable period of time* • (as determined by the local problem-solving team on a case-by-case basis, dependent on the nature of the problem(s), the nature and intensity of interventions, frequency of progress monitoring, and ability to evaluate trends.) • and with a level of intensity • that matches the student’s needs. - In HCPS, this is an area for ongoing emphasis.
Key features For students requiring individual interventions, • a Functional Behavioral Assessment (FBA) should be conducted, and • individual interventions should be developed and implemented based on the FBA. - In HCPS, this is an area for ongoing emphasis.
Key features • Data are used: • for ongoing student progress monitoring and data analysis • to evaluate intervention effectiveness and fidelity • and inform decisions about the focus and intensity of interventions. • Most students with behavioral or emotional challenges will respond to interventions developed, implemented, and evaluated in the above manner. • However, some students may need specially designed instruction and related services beyond general education resources and supports to sustain adequate progress in the learning environment.
Key features • Appropriate data will contribute to more appropriate referrals for evaluation. • Prior to referring for an evaluation, there should be documentation that interventions have been implemented as designed. • RTI references in the E/BD rule: • “persistent” emotional/ behavioral responses • “not sufficiently responsive to evidence-based interventions”
Extraordinary circumstances • Some students may have an acute onset of emotional/behavioral characteristics where the severity of the emotional/behavioral manifestations requires immediate ESE services. • An example could be a student coming from a residential hospital facility with a significant mental health diagnosis and a history of intensive support services in restrictive settings. • The need for such immediate ESE services should be infrequent and closely monitored. - Even under extraordinary circumstances, a FBA is still warranted so that a behavioral intervention can be developed and implemented.
Florida DOE Monitoring of District Implementation of E/BD Rule To monitor for rule compliance, staff will look for evidence that data were analyzed when making the eligibility decision. Non-example: checklists with initiation and duration dates of interventions are not sufficient evidence. Example: Sufficient evidence of intervention effectiveness includes: • clearly documented FBAs • graphs • summary descriptions of conferences • intervention team meetings, and • observations of the student
Components of EBD Evaluation • Functional Behavioral Assessment • The FBA should be initiated as part of general education interventions Team responsibilities: • Review the existing FBA • If needed, Revise the FBA • If it is incomplete or missing, Complete the FBA
Components of EBD Evaluation • Functional Behavioral Assessment • Initiated as part of general education interventions • Psychological evaluation (including “a review of evidence-based interventions that have already been implemented, the student’s response to those interventions, and the criteria used to evaluate their success”) • Social-developmental history compiled from a structured interview • Educational evaluation • Medical evaluation when determined necessary by ESE Director or designee
Reasons for Building FBA-BIP Teams To learn and support systems (e.g., online discipline data) that identify students with emerging behavior challenges and provide timely interventions. To assure that relevant laws and rules are understood by teachers, administrators, and other educational professionals. To provide oversight and assistance in complying with relevant laws and rules.
How Does Our Team Get Training, Tools, and Support? Bonnie Anzalone, Guidance Counselor
Training • Thanks to everybody who completed the 6-hour FDLRS “FBA and More” course • Special thanks to Shelley Cedola-Hayes and her FDLRS co-trainers! • Special thanks to the FACT members for arranging and providing Area-based training • Encourage others from your school to attend the “FBA and More” course • Training dates: to be announced pending the hiring of Shelley’s replacement (now Area 5 ESE DRT) • Plan Area-based “FBA and More” courses • New course sequence to be announced soon: Online & traditional classroom training to expand skills and knowledge beyond the “FBA and More” course.
Related Professional Development STAT (revised manual now available) Training dates to be announced: • 3-Tier Problem Solving • Tier 1 Schoolwide Behavioral Interventions • Tier 2 Targeted Group and Classroom Behavioral Interventions • Data Collection • Data Graphing & Interpretation • Data-Based Decision-Making • Eligibility Decisions (based on RTI)
Web-based Tools • Write this address in your notes: • http://interventioncentral.mysdhc.org/ • Handouts for this presentation! • Structured interviews for FBA • Direct observation forms to support pattern analysis • Data forms and Measurement tools (electronic and mechanical tally counters, etc.) • Graph templates • Professional references to review and cite to increase the credibility of the written document • And more!
When and how to seek expert support • To learn, to enhance services, and to comply with ethical rules • Practical guidelines • Available supports: - ESE Area offices - Area Team supports (e.g., consultations at School Psychologist Area Team meetings) - Local expertise (refer to Area directories of certified district staff - BCBA, BCABA, CBA, and CABA) - Functional Assessment Consultant Team (FACT) Please refer to the directory on the website.