Camera Basics What is a photograph and why do we take pictures? What is a camera?
Pieces: Things that make a Camera Work and Why • Shell/ Body: Protects the inside, contains the insides • Lens: collects light reflected from the subject and focuses it at the exact point • occupied by the film • Aperture: Located in lens, not camera body. Controls the amount of time that • light passing through the aperture is allowed to act on the film. • Shutter: Controls amount of light • coming in and out, located in • camera body. • ISO (International Standards • Organization): measures light • sensitivity
SLR: What does it stand for? • Most commonly used • Moving mirror system in front of shutter allows photographer to see • exactly what will be captured by film • Advantages of SLR: • Lens you look through same as lens shooting the picture • What you see in the viewfinder is same as recorded on film • Range of lenses makes SLR versatile • Disadvantages of SLR: • Expensive • Mechanical complexity makes them prone • to failure • Heavier and more awkward
Shutters/ Lenses: Leaf Shutter: more accurate Focal plane: 2 pieces of plastic that open/ close Focal Length: distance between film and lens Standard: 50-55 mm Lens: tube with glass that allows and focuses light Controlling Shutter Speed: Shutter: opens and let light in and then closes (think of it as a sophisticated door) Slower= more light ex: 1 Faster= less light ex: 500
Settings • Aperture: • Device that controls/ allows amount of light in • Calibrated in F stops, controls depth of field and affects exposure. • Bigger F-stop: smaller opening: less light • Example: 2.8 F-stop: more light in • 22 F-stop: less light in • *Aperture #’s range from 1.8 (big opening)- 64 (small opening) • (F-Stop is a fraction that measures the amount of stop) • Determined by measuring the length of the lens and the width: • If the lens is 200mm, and the width is 50mm, the F-Stop is f4.0 • Because: a width of 50mm is ¼ the length of 200mm • So: An f4 is much larger than an f8 • Helpful Hint: a ¼ inch hose is bigger than a 1/8 inch hose • Therefore: a ¼ inch opening lets more stuff through than a 1/8 inch opening
Why does the F-Stop Matter? • It controls the amount of light coming in. • Big window= More light (remember smaller number) • Smaller window= Less light (bigger number) • It helps control Depth of Field • *Depth of field is the amount of stuff in focus vs. the amount of stuff blurred* • Big Window= More bend= More blur • Smaller Window= Less Bend= Less blur *Aperture HELPS control Depth of Field (range where you have sharp focus), it is not the only variable in this equation. Selecting a large aperture does not guarantee depth of field: Distance from Camera to Subject matters too. *Smaller Aperture gives less blur in reference to subject vs. background. It does not give less blur for other things such as motion.
Larger aperture bending light more- blurrier (smaller F-stop #) Shallow depth allows focus on one focal point, other things blur Clearer
Understanding the Numbers: Think of different items you can see light through: a fire hose, a garden hose, and a straw F-stops in relation to these items: F2.8 is a fire hose- f8 is a garden hose- f16 is a straw (light coming through each)
ISO (International Standards Organization) • Measures light sensitivity • Low ISO (ex: 100): portraits, objects not moving, bright sunny days • High ISO; sports, fast moving action • Low ISO Benefits: • Better color • Crisp • Clear Would you use a high ISO or a low ISO to photograph a person sledding? What about your puppy taking a nap?
Example of Aperture Settings in Relation to Image
To Make a Photograph: Light Light Sensitive Surface Way to control light 3 Ways to Control Light: Intensity (aperture) Duration (shutter) Sensitivity of light sensitive surface (ISO)