What is Acute Renal Failure? renal failure associated with burns or other trauma or with acute infection or obstruction of the urinary tract. Means that your kidneys have suddenly stopped working.
Causes of Acute Renal Failure 3 of the main reasons for kidney failure are : A sudden serious drop in blood flow to the kidneys. A bad infection called sepsis can reduce blood flow. Dehydration can also harm the kidneys Damage from some medications, poisons or infections. Most people don’t have issues with medications but those who have long-term health problems are more likely to.
Some items that can cause this are: • Antibiotics such as gentamicin and streptomycin • Pain medicines such as aspirin and ibuprofen • Some blood pressure medications • Some dyes used in some x ray tests. • 3. A sudden blockage that stops urine from flowing out of the kidneys. • Some examples of this would be: • Kidney stones • Tumor • An injury • Enlarged prostate
Greater risk for Acute Renal Failure You are at greater risk for ARF if : You’re an older adult Have long-term health problems such as Kidney or liver disease Diabetes High blood pressure Heart failure Obesity If your already very ill
Having surgery on your heart or belly or even bone marrow transplants can make kidney failure more likely.
Symptoms Little or no urine when you urinate Swelling in legs/feet Loss of appetite Nausea or vomiting Confusion, anxious or restless, sleepy Pain in back just below rib cage ( flank pain) Some more causes of Acute Renal Failure can be: cont….
(ATN) Acute tubular necrosis which is blood clots caused from cholesterol (cholesterol emboli) Hemorrhage, injury, septic shock. There are some infections that can directly injure the kidneys such as: Acute pyelonephritis or septicemia There are also conditions in pregnancy that can affect the kidneys. The two main one are: Placenta abruptio and Placenta previa. Some of the symptoms you can experience from these types of complications may be:
Flank pain • Hand tremors • Slow, sluggish movements • Bloody stools • Bruising easily • Metallic taste in mouth • Seizures • Decreased sensation ( hands and feet) • Nose bleeds • Changes in urination • Some tests that can be done to check kidney functions are: • BUN • Creatinine clearance • Serum creatinine • Serum potassium • Urinalysis
Treatments Treatments relays a lot on whether the cause can be found. You may need antibiotics to prevent infection. You may also be given a diuretic or medicines through a vein to control blood potassium levels. For some patients Dialysis may be needed.
Dialysis could be needed if: You develop pericarditis Retain to much fluid You cannot eliminate nitrogen waste products from your body.
Acute Tubular Necrosis Is a kidney disorder involving damage to the tubule cells of the kidneys, which can lead to ARF( acute renal failure). ATN is caused by a lack of oxygen to the kidney tissues. Which can also occur if the cells have been damaged by poison or harmful substances. ATN is one of the most common causes of kidney failure.
Risks of ATN include: Blood transfusion reaction Injury or trauma that damages the muscles Low blood pressure lasting longer then 30 minutes Recent major surgery Septic shock due to severe infection Having liver disease or diabetes can make you more susceptible for this condition.
Symptoms and test that can be done: Coma Delirium or confusion Decreased urine output or no urine output Nausea or vomiting Bun/ serum creatinine Fractional excretion of sodium Kidney biopsy As well as a Urine specific gravity and Osmolarityurine.
Treatments Treatments may include : Restricting fluid intake to a volume equal to the volume of urine produced. Taking medications to help control potassium levels in bloodstream.
References http://www.webmd.com/a-to-z-guides/acute-renal-failure-topic-overview http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000501.htm http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000512.htm