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Chapter 27: The New Deal and Reform

Chapter 27: The New Deal and Reform

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Chapter 27: The New Deal and Reform

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  1. Chapter 27: The New Deal and Reform AMERICA GETS BACK TO WORK

  2. Chapter 27: The New Deal and Reform • The First Hundred Days Set the Tone • Roosevelt Seeks to Reform The System • The New Deal Comes Under Attack • Many Changes Occur During the New Deal

  3. SECTION 1: The First Hundred Days Set the Tone • The 1932 presidential election showed that Americans were clearly ready for a change • Republicans re-nominated Hoover despite his low approval rating • The Democrats nominated Franklin Delano Roosevelt

  4. ROOSEVELT WINS OVERWHELMING VICTORY • Democrat Roosevelt, known popularly as FDR, was a 2-term governor of New York • FDR was a distant cousin of Teddy Roosevelt • The Democrats also won huge victories in the house and senate • Greatest Democratic victory in 80 years FDR easily won the 1932 election

  5. FDR LAUNCHES NEW DEAL • FDR promised a “new deal” for the American people • He took office with a flurry of activity known as “The Hundred Days” • The 100 Days lasted from March to June 1933

  6. New Deal • Roosevelt’s plan to help deal with the Great Depression. • He wanted to do the following: 1. Help the needy 2. Economic recovery 3. Financial reform

  7. Alphabet Agencies • Different programs that Roosevelt began. • The purpose of these agencies were to help the poor, give unemployed citizens jobs, and to raise the economy. • Example: CCC- put young men to work by building railroads and parks.

  8. Alphabet Laws

  9. New Deal Programs • Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) • Emergency Banking Relief Act (EBRA) • Home Owners Loan Corporation (HOLC) • Glass-Steagall Act – F.D.I.C. • National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA) • National Recovery Act (NRA) • Public Works Administration

  10. Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA): Raised crop prices by lowering production. • National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA): gave $ to states to create jobs in constructing schools.

  11. MORE 100 DAYS ACTIVITY • Federal Securities Act: Required stock info to be accurate and truthful • Agricultural Adjustment Act: (AAA) Raised crop prices by lowering production • Tennessee Valley Authority: (TVA) Focused on direct relief to hard hit area– created ambitious dam projects

  12. Tennessee Valley Authority • TVA • A federal corporation that constructed dams & power plants in the Tennessee Valley region to generate electricity as well as to prevent floods.

  13. TVA

  14. TO DO LIST: #1- HELP BANKS • First order of business was to get the banking system in order • On March 5, one day after taking office, FDR declared a bank holiday(so people can’t withdraw $) • He persuaded Congress to pass the Emergency Relief Act, which authorized the Treasury Department to inspect the nation’s banks

  15. AMERICANS GAIN CONFIDENCE IN BANKS • Glass-Steagall Act- Agency that insures individuals’ bank accounts, protecting people against losses due to bank failures • Act which established the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation • The FDIC insured account holders up to $5,000 and set strict standards for banks to follow (today = $100,000)

  16. ALPHABET AGENCIES • CCC – Civilian Conservation Corps put young men to work • Men ages 18 to 25 worked building roads, parks, planting trees (200 million trees in Dust Bowl areas) • By 1942 three million men worked for the CCC

  17. ALPHABET AGENCIES • PWA – Public Works Administration was part of the NIRA (National Industrial Recovery Act) • The PWA provided money to states to construct schools and community buildings PWA workers construct a public building in Hartford, Connecticut

  18. ALPHABET AGENCIES • CWA – Civil Works Administration built 40,000 schools and provided salaries for 50,000 teachers in rural America • Also built 500,000 miles of roads CWA School in Woodville, CA

  19. ALPHABET AGENCIES • FHA – Federal Housing Administration provided home loans, home mortgages and repairs Repaired business in Childersburg, Alabama

  20. ALPHABET AGENCIES • FERA – Federal Emergency Relief Agency provided $500 million in direct relief to the neediest Americans Citizens wait outside a FERA in Calipatria, CA for relief checks

  21. CRITICS EMERGE • Despite the renewed confidence of many Americans, critics from both political spectrums emerged • Liberals (left) felt FDR’s program was NOT doing enough • Conservatives (right) felt that government intervention was TOO much and interfered with our free market economy

  22. SECTION 2: Roosevelt Seeks to Reform the System • Although the economy had improved during FDR’s first term (1932-1936), the gains were not as great as expected • Unemployment remained high and production still lagged

  23. Works Progress Administration (WPA) • Agency which provided the unemployed with jobs in construction, garment making, teaching, the arts, and other fields. • National Youth Administration (NYA): Provided education, jobs, counseling, and recreation for young people. • Wagner Act: Prohibited unfair work labor practices on workers.

  24. SOCIAL SECURITY ACT • One of the most important achievements of the New Deal era was the creation of the Social Security System

  25. The Social Security Act, passed in 1935, had 3 parts: • Old-Age Pension • Unemployment compensation • Aid to families with dependent children & disabled (welfare) • Millions of Americans received benefits. • Still exists today.

  26. Securities & Exchange Commission • SEC • Agency that monitors the stock market & enforces laws regulating the sale of stocks & bonds.

  27. Second New Deal

  28. The New Deal Comes Under Attack • U.S. Supreme Court declares New Deal reforms unconstitutional • Checks and Balances • NIRA • Schechter Poultry Corporation v. United States • “Sick chicken case” • NLRA created • National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) • Fair Labor Standards Act • Minimum wage • Maximum work week • AAA declared unconstitutional

  29. SUPREME COURT REACTS • By the mid-1930s, the Supreme Court struck down the NIRA as unconstitutional (citing too much government control over industry) • The Court also struck down the AAA on the grounds that agricultural was a local matter -- not a federal matter The Supreme Court -- 1935

  30. FDR REGAINS CONTROL OVER SUPREME COURT • From the mid to late 1930s, FDR was able to appoint 7 new judges to the Supreme Court, thus assuring that his programs would carry on unabated

  31. ANOTHER CRITIC • Huey Long was a Senator from Louisiana • He turned against Roosevelt and the New Deal. • He had a “Share-our-Wealth” program • Long was setting up a run for president • A lone gunman assassinated Long at the height of his popularity in 1935 Huey Long made effective use of radio to promote his views

  32. New Deal Critics

  33. Many Changes Occur During the New Deal • Labor Unions Grow • United Mine Workers (UMW) • United Automobile Workers (UAW) • United Steel Workers (USW) • Committee for Industrial Organization (CIO) • Sit-down strikes • American Federation of Labor (AFL) • AFL-CIO (1955)

  34. Labor Unions

  35. New Opportunities for Minorities • African-Americans • NAACP • Black Cabinet • Marian Anderson • Mary McLeod Bethune • American Indians • Indian Reorganization Act • Mexican Americans

  36. AFRICAN AMERICANS GAIN POLITICAL POSITIONS FDR appointed over 100 African Americans to positions within the government • Mary McLeod Bethune headed the division of Negro Affairs of the NYA • Despite these gains, FDR was never fully committed to Civil Rights Bethune

  37. NATIVE AMERICANS MAKE GAINS • Native Americans made advances during the 1920s & 1930s • Full citizenship granted in 1924 • The Reorganization Act of 1934 gave Natives more ownership of reservations • Policy was moving away from assimilation towards autonomy

  38. Current locations of Native American reservations

  39. FDR WINS IN 1936 . . . AGAIN • FDR had wide appeal in the United States, especially in urban areas • African Americans, Jews, Catholics and immigrants all supported the popular president FDR & Eleanor campaign by rail in 1936

  40. FAMOUS FILMS OF THE 30s • One of the most famous films of the era was Gone with the Wind (1939) • Other notable movies of the era included The Wizard of Oz (1939) and Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs (1937)

  41. 1930’s Entertainment

  42. Actors and Musicians • Actors • Clark Gable • Greta Garbo • Fred Astaire and Ginger Rogers • Musicians • Benny Goodman • Glenn Miller • Swing Bands

  43. RADIO: THE ORIGINAL ENTERTAINMENT • Sales of radios greatly increased in the 1930s, from 13 million in 1930 to 28 million by 1940 • Nearly 90% of American homes owned a radio Families spent hours listening to the radio

  44. ROOSEVELT’S FIRESIDE CHATS • FDR communicated to Americans via radio • His frequent “Fireside Chats” kept Americans abreast of the government’s efforts during the Depression

  45. JOHN STEINBECK RECEIVES ACCLAIM • American writer John Steinbeck received assistance from the Federal Writers’ Project • He published his most famous book, Grapes of Wrath (1939), as part of the program

  46. New Opportunities for Woman • Francis Perkins • Actresses • Janet Gaynor • Joan Crawford • Bette Davis • Writers • Margret Mitchell • Pearl Buck • Amelia Earhart • Mildred “Babe” Didrikson

  47. Artists and Authors • Artists • Edward Hopper • Thomas Hart Benton • Grant Wood • Writers • Richard Wright • John Steinbeck • Thornton Wilder

  48. ARTISTS HERALDED • Painters like Edward Hopper, Thomas Hart Benton, and Iowa’s Grant Wood were all made famous by their work in the WPA program • Photographer Dorothea Lange gained fame from her photos during this era (featured throughout this presentation) Wood’s American Gothic is perhaps the most famous piece of the era (1930)