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Methods of Teaching Keyboarding & Input Technologies

Methods of Teaching Keyboarding & Input Technologies

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Methods of Teaching Keyboarding & Input Technologies

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  1. Methods of Teaching Keyboarding & Input Technologies BTE363/364

  2. First Practical Typewriter • Invented by Christopher Latham Sholes • Marketed by Remington Arms Company 1873 • Very sluggish; tended to jam frequently

  3. QWERTY Typewriter • James Densmore suggested splitting up keys • Key arrangement slowed time to find common two-letter combinations • Each type bar had time to fall back out of way of next one • Keys jammed less frequently

  4. QWERTY

  5. Portable Typewriter • George C.Blickensderfer introduced it 1893 • Interchangeable type wheel • Could produce multiple languages • Home row “DHIATENSOR” could spell 70% of English-language words

  6. Blickensderfer Portable Typewriter

  7. Touch Typing • 1878 ten-finger typing promoted by Mrs. L.V. Longley • Frank E. McGurrin • Taught himself to type without looking at keys • Won typing contest • World’s Fastest Typist • 1889 Bates Torey published touch typing manual

  8. Typing History • 1874 Mark Twain submits typewritten manuscript of The Adventures of Tom Sawyer • Typing used in WWI to type orders & directives • Keyboarding evolves • Teaching touch system • Developing speed & accuracy • Applying learning theories • Analyzing role of technique

  9. Keyboards • QWERTY • Dvorak

  10. QWERTY Keyboard

  11. Dvorak • Developed in 1932 • Easier to learn • Most frequently occurring letters placed in home-row position

  12. Dvorak Keyboard

  13. Reasons for Teaching Touch Keyboarding • Keyboard most common method of interacting with computer • Lack of proper keying hinders & frustrates people • Employers value competency • Internet access increasing • Useful skill for computer users

  14. Conditioning • Operant conditioning • Relies on reinforcement • Used in early learning stages • Learner makes correct response; correct letter appears on screen

  15. Classical Conditioning • Relies on stimulus-response • Occurs during higher stroking speeds • Associates visual stimulus with specific response • Important component is knowledge of results • Contiguity = Stimulus + Results + Knowledge of Results

  16. Mediators • Learners may tend to mouth or vocalize letters • Impedes skill development • Must be eliminated • Force students to key faster • Call out letters • Timing practice lines

  17. Kinesthesis • Sensation of motion & position in muscles & joints • Allows people, with eyes closed, to touch noses or feed themselves without missing their mouth • “the feel of motion” • Enables students to make appropriate responses at the keyboard • Learners need to watch fingers in beginning stages of keyboarding instruction

  18. Technique • Posture while sitting at keyboard • Sit up straight • Feet flat on floor • Wrists raised above keyboard frame • Hands almost motionless • Correct keystroking • Wrist, hand, finger motion • Use ballistic stroking motion • Return to home-row position

  19. Role of Teacher • Demonstrate, stress, & assess proper techniques • Observe students and correct poor techniques • Don’t allow use of wrist rests • Allow students to watch finger movement for reach and direction

  20. Motivation • Intrinsic (from within) • Example ? • Extrinsic (from without) • Example ?

  21. Practice • Massed • Tends to occur in large time blocks—20 minutes or more • Example: Completing a multi-page report in 50 minutes • Harmful in beginning stages of keyboarding due to fatigue • Spaced • Spread out over time—10 minutes or less

  22. Transfer • Skill or concept learned in one place transferring to another place • Tasks must be similar & student must see the similarity

  23. Speed & Accuracy • Before computers, accuracy received more focus when learning to keyboard • Now, speed has become the focus

  24. Speed • Speed will not develop if students are never pushed • Sixty-second drills for no longer than 3 minutes should be completed daily • Push for speed should be gradual—about 1 word per minute • Strategies • Speed-spurt writing – 30 second drills • Specialized drills – easy letter combinations & words • Guided writings – time is called at 20 or 30 second intervals and students should be at a particular point

  25. Accuracy • Matter of keying at the right speed • Too much emphasis on accuracy in early stages will impede speed • Keyboarders slow down when encountering unfamiliar words • Response-differentiation drills are about only drill to improve accuracy

  26. Learning Stages • Cognitive – learning steps that make up different movements for various keystrokes • Associative – smooth responses; mediators disappear, motions are less hesitant • Autonomous – characterized by kinesthetic cues; “a” is stimulus for keying “n” in word “and”

  27. Responses • Letters – early stages; each letter is keyed as separate unit • Word –very short words are keyed as complete units • Word/letter – part of word is keyed as word and part of it letter by letter

  28. Standard Method • Students find the new key on the keyboard chart. • Students locate the new key on the computer keyboard. • Students place their fingers over the home-row keys. • Students watch their fingers as they make the reach to the new key. • Students key a line using the new key (d c d space d c d space; always return to home row). • The teacher calls out the new key. • Students key a two- or three-line drill in which the new key is emphasized.

  29. Who Should Teach Keyboarding? • Person trained in psychomotor skill development • Should not be taught by computer lab person using software

  30. Methods of Instruction • Developing keystroking skills • Developing application skills

  31. What Should be Taught? • Students should be taught • To key without looking at their hands/fingers • Attain a reasonable level of speed • To key accurately

  32. How Long Should It Take • Keyboard should be taught in no more than 30 hours • Speed and accuracy are then developed and refined

  33. What Should Be Stressed? • Good techniques

  34. What Materials Should Be Used? • Common approach is to use software and an accompanying textbook

  35. First Day • Introduce home row • Demonstrate how to position wrists and fingers • Show proper body arrangement • Sit up straight • Feet flat on floor • Computer basics • Turning computer on and logging in • Finding file location on network • Saving work • Retrieving work

  36. Daily Schedule • Teaching 2 new keys daily • Teaching 3 new keys daily

  37. Typical Content • Keyboard • Memos • Letters • Reports • Tables • First Nine Weeks • Second Nine Weeks

  38. Authentic Assessment • Student evaluation using materials other than tests and quizzes • Benefits of using authentic assessment • Types • Performance • Portfolio • Self-assessment • Video

  39. Reliability & Validity • Reliability – test is consistent • Example: student took a timing, rested, and then took another timing; scores should be identical if test had perfect reliability • The more the scores deviate from one another, the less reliable • Validity – extent to which test measures what it claims to measure

  40. Keyboarding Assessment • Determined by objectives of course • IBEA Keyboarding Objectives • Mailable document – error free; can be sent out or distributed • IBEA Keyboarding Assessment • Technique checksheets • Correct body posture • Correct arm & hand position • Correct key stroking

  41. 2 Assessment Components • Straight-copy timing • Application (Production) work – documents that could be produced in the real world

  42. Activities That Should Not Be Graded • Keyboard drill lines • Remedial practice lines • Practice exercises • Games • Contests, • Motivational activities • Location drills

  43. Straight Copy Timings • Begin with 1-minute, move to 3-minute, and finally 5-minute • Use software or timing clock/stopwatch

  44. Evaluation of Straight Copy Timings • Gross Words A Minute (GWAM) • All keyed material is used to determine speed grade • Errors are recorded separately • Net Words A Minute (NWAM) • Determine speed • Assess penalty for errors • Error-Cutoff Method • After the “nth” error, no keyed material is counted

  45. Difficulty Level of Timings • Syllabic intensity (SI) • Average word length (AWL) • High frequency words (HFW)

  46. Application Assessment • Production Words A Minute – takes into account decision-making tasks • Points – develop a rubric • Criterion-based • Each student begins with an A+ • Each major error lowers grade one letter grade • Each minor error lowers grade half-a-letter grade

  47. Converting Letter Grades Grade-to-Point Conversion A+ 13 B+ 10 C+ 7 D+ 4 F 1 A 12 B 9 C 6 D 3 A- 11 B- 8 C- 5 D- 2

  48. Grading Software • Excel Grade Book • Example End of Day 1

  49. Early Keyboarding Awareness • Computer is vital tool for students of all ages • Early keyboarding awareness sets foundation for touch keying later • Young students (K-2) need to learn good techniques before they develop bad • Teach correct reach to delete/backspace key early before they find it and use pointer finger

  50. Grades K-2 • Develop an awareness of • Basic computer operations • Concepts • Keyboard usage • Objectives for K-2 • Frequent technique check is important • Students should not be graded with letter grades • Technique is most important element to emphasize, not speed nor accuracy