BIOCHEMISTRY HERBERT M. SAN PEDRO LECTURER email@example.com
REVIEW OF THE FUNDAMENTALS OF ORGANIC CHEMISTRY Functional Group >> Group of atoms attached to a compound that will dictate its behavior or property. >> Also plays a vital role in the behavior of the different bio-molecules. >> Sometimes in a bio-molecule there exist to or more FG.
The FUNCTIONAL GROUPS: >> Carboxyl - -COOH (Acids) - weak acid, proton donor, occurs in fats and in amino acids >> Hydroxyl - -OH (Alcohols) - polar radical, water soluble, forms an H-bond, slight acidic, occurs in sugars (CHO) >> Carbonyl - CO- (Aldehydes/Ketones) - polar radical, also occurs in sugars
CONT. >> Amino -NH2 (Amines) - weak base, accepts proton to form ionized salt, occurs in amino acids (Proteins) >> Alkenes -C=C- - occurs in many bio-molecules; CHO, CHON, Fats, Nucleic Acids >> Ester - COO- - a neutral molecule, which occurs in Fats >> Phosphate - PO3 - energy carriers, occurs in sugars
Metabolic reactions in living organisms • Oxidation-Reduction (REDOX) - Oxidation - (+) Oxygen or (-) Hydrogen, electron acceptor - Reduction - (+) Hydrogen or (-) Oxygen, electron donor 2. Hydrolysis and Condensation Hydrolysis - separation into components using water as an agent making complex molecules to simple molecules Condensation - creating or forming large molecules from their smaller building blocks.
CONT. 3. Decarboxylation - removal of the carboxyl group from an organic acid forming carbon dioxide 4. Transfer Reactions a. Phosphate Transfer, an important metabolic reactions because some organic materials cannot be metabolized w/o the inclusion of phosphate (phosphorylated)
CONT. 2. Transamination - involve during the synthesis of amino acids 3. Acetyl transfer - required/needed when acetate is produced after the degradation of CHO and Fatty acids 4. Transmethylation - transfer of methyl group from a methyl donor to another group. NOTE: All reactions occurs with the aid of a bio-catalyst (Enzymes)
INTRODUCTION TO BIOCHEMISTRY • Study of the composition and structure of those materials found in the living organisms and the substances derived from them. Also concerns with the reactions which occurs in the living systems. Biochemical Composition a. C, H, O - present in virtually all the compounds in the living organisms
CONT. b. N – a major component of proteins c. P and S - regarded as energy carriers of the living system d. Na, K, Mg, Ca and Cl (mineral elements) – sometimes present as ions needed to maintain osmotic balance, nerve conduction, aids in the movement of inorganic compounds loosely bound to a protein/or any biochemical substance e. B, Al, Si, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn ( trace elements) – suited for bio-redox reaction (Fe, Cu) which can exist as stable ions in different state.
CONT. f. Water – most abundant in all living organisms, though it varies from species to species and parts to parts, it makes affects the total weight of the living organisms, and it has numerous importance in the human body (see next lesson), w/o water the dry weight of the living system can be accounted from CHO, CHON, Fats. The Bond - Components are basically present in compound form that is why bond are basically important (covalent bond) .
CONT: However, it is not only covalent bond which is applicable but there are also other which are equally import ant: Ionic bonds, H-bond, Vander Waals and Hydrophobic Interactions. Structure and Building Blocks - BM are complex molecules and therefore made up of simple building blocks (except lipids) creating a polymeric structure.
WATER • Though also known as the “Universal Solvent,” it is also one of the major component of the cell (70% to 90%), acts as inert space filler in a living organisms. • Key role in determining the structure and biological properties of the different bio-molecules (macromolecules) Water Properties: 1. H- Bonding > The continuous formation and breaking of this bond in the aq. System exceeds the rate of making and breaking of most covalent bonds, having itself a greater biological advantage.
CONT. • Has Unique Properties > compared to another liquids, it has a high BPt, FPt, Heat of Vaporization, sp. Heat, Heat of Fusion, and water tension. (Internal Cohesion is high) • Exceptional Solvent Property • Properties Altered by Solutes > 4 major properties can be altered by the presence of dissolved solutes (Colligative Properties), i.e. BPt elevation, FPt depression, Osmotic Pressure and Vapor Pressure Lowering.
CONT. 5. High Specific Heat > amount of heat needed to raise 1 g of water through 1 deg C is one calorie. (between 15 to 16 deg C), means highest heat capacity, (The body can store heat effectively w/o greatly raising its temperature) 6. High latent Heat of Vaporization > Large amount of heat is required to evaporate it. (when it vaporizes it only takes 0.58 Cal) – giving rise to what we call cooling effect , and provides the biological system a unique thermostat.
CONT. 7. High Latent Heat of Fusion > The heat required by water to make it an ice, and vice-versa affects the temperature change in the environment (diminishing effect) 8. High Surface Tension > a good capillarity action which very important in relation to biological membranes Ref: Lecture Manual; Biochemistry by Espino-Cabatit Principles of Biochemistry by Zubay
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