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Chapter 9

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Chapter 9

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  1. Chapter 9 Drugs and Toxicology (PBS-secrets of dead –executed by error -56 min)

  2. A bottle of Bayer's 'Heroin'. Between 1890 and 1910 heroin was sold asa non-addictive substitute for morphine.It was also used to treat children suffering with a strong cough.

  3. Produced by the Maltine Manufacturing Company of New York . It was suggested that you should take a full glass with or after every meal. Children should only take half a glass.

  4. A paperweight promoting C.F. Boehringer & Soehne ( Mannheim , Germany ). They were proud of being the biggest producers in the world of products containing Quinine and Cocaine.

  5. At 40% alcohol plus 3 grams of opium per tablet. It didn't cure you... but you didn't care!

  6. All stage actors, singers, teachers and preachers had to have them for a maximum performance. Great to 'smooth' the voice. Cocaine Tablets (1900).

  7. Very popular for children in 1885. Not only did they relieve the pain, they made the children very happy!

  8. Opium for newborns. I'm sure this would make them sleep well. (not only the Opium, but also the 46% alcohol)

  9. Drugs • A natural or synthetic substance that is used to produce physiological or psychological effects in humans/animals • 75% of evidence in crime labs is drug related

  10. Drug Dependence • Is dependent on the personal characteristics of the users, societies attitudes and setting that the drugs are used in • newbook\drugs\Popular_Drugs__Their_Side_Effects.wmv

  11. Psychological Dependence(table 9-1) • The conditioned use of a drug caused by underlying emotional needs • Created by continued use of a drug • Psychological dependence greater w/ : • Heroin, nicotine, amphetamines, cocaine • Psychological dependence less w/: • Marijuana, LSD, codeine

  12. Physical Dependence • Occurs when a user abstains from a drug and a physical illness occurs • The desire to avoid “withdrawal sickness” causes the physical dependence • Develops when user adheres to a regular schedule of intake (drug never wears off) • Narcotics, depressants have higher amounts of physical dependence than stimulants and hallucinogens

  13. Kids and Drugs •

  14. 10% of American 8th graders report using an illicit drug in the last month • $6,120 per second is the $ lost to the US society because of drug use (loss of productivity, health care cost) • Every day, approximately 4,700 American youth under age 18 try marijuana for the first time. • Wisconsin state- drug info

  15. Source: From the laboratories of Drs. N. Volkow and H. SchelbertAddiction is similar to other diseases, such as heart disease. Both disrupt the normal, healthy functioning of the underlying organ, have serious harmful consequences, are preventable, treatable, and if left untreated, can last a lifetime.

  16. Decreased Dopamine Transporters in a Methamphetamine Abuser

  17. Narcotics By: Dan, Tylor, Johnny

  18. What is it? • Substances that bind at opiate receptors; refers to opium, opium derivatives, and semi-synthetic substitutes • Street Names: Mr. Brownstone, Horse, Scat, Smack, China White, Hard Stuff, Crank, Jive, Junk, Shag, Dope • Often smoked, sniffed, or injected; can be taken orally, transdermally (skin patches)

  19. Effects • Effects: Drowsiness, inability to concentrate, apathy, lessened physical activity, constriction of the pupils, dilation of the subcutaneous blood vessels, constipation, nausea, vomiting, and respiratory depression • Produce a general sense of well-being by reducing tension, anxiety, and aggression • Effects depend heavily on the dosage

  20. Dangers (Addiction) • Risk of infection, disease, and overdose • Street drugs have unknown compositions, may contain adulterants; non-sterile injection • Hepatitis and AIDS in narcotic abusers • No way to determine drug purity, may be fatal • Confusion, convulsions, respiratory depression for overdose • Tolerance and Dependence develop, need to consume larger doses to obtain desired effect • Shorter acting narcotics produce shorter, more intense withdrawal symptoms, longer acting ones produce less severe withdrawal syndrome

  21. Pictures of Heroin

  22. Hallucinogens • Substance that induce changes in mood attitude, thought or perception

  23. Marijuana • Marijuana is a plant that is grown in tropical regions. • There are many street names for Marijuana such as Pot Mary Jane Weed Ganja Dope Bud • THC is the cause of most of effects. • Marijuana is smoked in as a joint, blunt, in a bong or pipe. The effects are felt in 10 to 30 minutes and may linger for up to three hours. • Low doses may enhance your sense of sight, of smell, taste, and hearing. • Stronger doses intensify your reaction time, fluctuating emotions, fragmented thoughts, impaired memory, and some illusion. • Higher doses can lead to image distortion, memory loss, and hallucinations.

  24. EFFECTS • Increased Heart rate, dryness of the mouth, reddening of the eyes, impaired motor skills, concentration, and a desired hunger for sweets. • Excessiveuse can damage your lungs and reproductive system as well as suppression of the immune system. • Many have reported hallucinations, fantasies, and paranoia. DANGERS • Long-term use may result in Amotivational Syndrome: apathy, impairment of judgment, memory and concentration, and loss of interest in personal appearance and pursuit of goals. (lazy) • Marijuana contains known toxins and cancer-causing chemicals. Marijuana users experience the same health problems as tobacco smokers, such as bronchitis, emphysema, and bronchial asthma.

  25. Addiction is controversial. There are 300 million users world wide. Marijuana is not addictive physically, but is known to be mentally addictive. Among younger Americans, 17.5 percent of 8th graders and 46.1 percent of 12th graders had used marijuana in their lifetime. Weird Facts The profits made in 2004 by selling marijuana in the United States exceeded 9 Billion dollars. California, Hawaii, and Kentucky are the three states that illegally grow the most pot in the United States. The marijuana leaves are the part of the plant that is illegal, however the seeds to the plant are not illegal.

  26. LSD and Mescaline

  27. What is it? • Known as Lysergic Acid Diethylamide • It’s a Hallucinogen- Mood altering drug • Also known as • Acid • Window pane • Microdots

  28. How is it taken? • When in liquid form, added to absorbent paper that is eaten. • Different liquid and gelatin forms are taken through the eyes. • Can also be found in tablet and capsule form, and taken orally.

  29. Effects • Psychological • Depression, anxiety, fear, and panic • Feels indestructible • Isolation • Warped self perception and visual perception • Physical • Increased heart rate, blood pressure, and body temperature • Dilated pupils • Loss of muscle control • Heightened awareness of sensory input

  30. Dangers and Addiction • There are over 200 different forms of LSD that appear on over 350 different types of “paper” • May cause psychosis, and later in life have flashbacks. • Very common in clubs, so underestimate dangers. • Not physically addictive, but do develop tolerance so need more.

  31. Other Information • Is odorless, colorless, and tasteless • Made from a fungus that grows on rye and other grains • Mescaline comes from the mushroom peyote

  32. PCP & Ketamine PCP (Phencyclidine), commonly referred to as angel dust, ozone, wack, rocket fuel, is a dissociative drug because it distorts perceptions of sight and sound and produces feelings of detachment from the environment and yourself. Ketamine, also called Special K, green, K, cat valium, is a powerful hallucinogen that is taken from animal tranquilizers.

  33. Basic Information • How to use it • PCP starts as a white crystalline powder and is turned into many forms such as tablets, capsules, and colored powders. It is snorted, smoked or ingested. • Ketamine comes as either a clear liquid or powder. It is usually snorted, but some users smoke it. • Effects and Dangers • PCP creates a slight increase in breathing rate, blood pressure, and pulse rate. Breathing is shallow and users sweat profusely. High doses can cause vomiting, nausea, seizures, coma, and even death. • Ketamine can cause anesthesia, immobility anesthesia, cataplexy, immobility, tachycardia, increased blood pressure, nystagmus, hypersalivation, increased urinary output, profound insensitivity to pain, amnesia, slurred speech, and lack of coordination.

  34. Ketamine (animal tranquilizers) • Ketamine comes as either a clear liquid or powder. It is usually snorted, but some users smoke it. • Ketamine can cause anesthesia, immobility anesthesia, cataplexy, immobility, tachycardia, increased blood pressure, nystagmus, hypersalivation, increased urinary output, profound insensitivity to pain, amnesia, slurred speech, and lack of coordination

  35. Addictiveness and Other Info. • Ketamine hasn’t shown that the users are addicted or have any sort of dependency. • PCP is addicting, but only psychologically. • Abuse of PCP seemed to peak in the late 1970s. Because it is inexpensive to produce, PCP is sometimes sold on the streets as delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the active ingredient in marijuana; lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD); or other exotic designer hallucinogens. • Ketamine was developed in the min 1960’s and is an anaesthetic drug legally produced for use in human and animal medicine, although it is rarely used in humans due to the side effects. • The possession and use of Ketamine is currently not illegal.The unauthorized manufacture or sale of Ketamine is an offence under the Medicines Act.

  36. Mescaline • Peyote- cactus • Usage:Generally, from 4-20 buttons, are eaten or made into tea. 500 mg is considered a standard hallucinogenic dose of mescaline. • Peyote users experience color as distinctly brilliant and intense. Delurium. • Physical Dependence: NonePsychological Dependence: Moderate

  37. Psilocybin Street names: Boomers, Silly Putty, Musk, and God’s Flesh

  38. A hallucinogenic substance obtained from certain types of mushrooms found in tropical areas. The mushrooms contain 0.2 to 0.4 percent psilocybin and a trace amount of psilocyn. Psilocybin mushrooms are ingested orally. They may be brewed into tea, added to other foods or covered in chocolate to be disguised as candy and also to hide their bitter taste. What is it and How is it taken?

  39. Effects and Dangers • Physical effects: appear 20 minutes within ingestion and last 6 hours, nausea, vomiting, muscle weakness, drowsiness, and lack of coordination. • Psychological effects: hallucinations and an inability to discern fantasy from reality.

  40. MDMA Ecstasy, go, X, Adam, hug drug

  41. Facts • What is it? • A human-made stimulant and hallucinogen, often associated with raves • How is it taken? • Usually ingested in tablet form, but can also be crushed, snorted, injected, or suppository form • What type of addiction? • Physiological and Psychological • What does it cost? • As high as $40 a tablet, but usually between $20-$30

  42. What are short-term effects? Severe dehydration Heat stroke Rapid heartbeat High blood pressure Faintness Muscle cramping Panic attacks Loss of consciousness What are long-term effects (dangers)? Hypothermia Muscle breakdown Seizures Stroke Kidney and cardiovascular failure Permanent damage to brain Death Effects

  43. Depressants • Substance used to depress the functions of the central nervous system • Calm irritability and anxiety and may induce sleep

  44. Alcohol • Ethanol, a colorless, flamable compound with molecular form C2H60 is the active ingredient in alcohol. • Alcohol, a depressant, is also known as booze, liquor, grandpa’s cough medicine, and several other regional nicknames. • It is consumed orally.

  45. Alcohol • Depending on consumption amount alcohol can lead to dehydration, feelings of relaxation, blurred vision, coordination problems, and slowed reactions. • Overuse of alcohol can lead to vomiting, asphyxiation, unconsciousness, coma, dependency or death. • Long term use can lead to cirrhosis of the liver, delirium tremens, among other fatalities.

  46. Alcohol • Alcohol is psychological addictive, physical addictive, and a neurochemical, meaning misuse of alcohol becomes a learned, socially accepted addiction. • Alcohol use dates back to 9000 B.C.

  47. Barbiturates Use this website to summarize

  48. What is it? • Barbiturates act to depress the central nervous system and are often called sleeping pills. • Barbiturates have been used extensively in the past as sedatives