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Chapter 4

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Chapter 4

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  1. Chapter 4 Ancient Greece 1900 – 133 B.C.

  2. Location of Greece within Europe

  3. Key Events • Athens and Sparta emerged as the leading Greek city-states • The Greek military defeated the Persian army • Greek Theatre, arts, and architecture flourished during the Classical Age • Greek Philosophers such as Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle established the foundations of Western Philosophy

  4. The Impact Today • The Olympic games are held every 2 years • Greek architecture is still considered the classical model of grace and symmetry • Greek plays continue to be performed throughout the world • Current democratic systems of government and citizenship are based on ideas originally developed by the Greeks

  5. Timeline • Chapter coversalmost 1800years of ancient Greek history • 1900 B.C. through 133 B.C.

  6. Chapter Preview • Pericles Addresses Athens • Speech at public funeral during war between the Greek states of Athens and Sparta • Similarities with U.S. Constitution

  7. Section 1 The First Greek Civilizations

  8. Greek Geography • A mountainous peninsula and many islands (About the size of Louisiana) • Mountains and sea played important roles • Mountains isolated Greeks from one another – different communities developed their own ways of life

  9. Map of Greece

  10. Greek Geography (Continued) • Communities became independent • Small size encourage participation in politics • The rivalry led to warfare that devastated Greek society • Greeks also lived on many islands surrounding the mainland • There were many harbors along the coastlines

  11. The Minoan Civilization • Flourished between 2700 and 1450 B.C. • Was located on the large island of Crete (Southeast of mainland) • Sea empire based on trade • An advanced civilization

  12. The End of the Minoan’s • Sudden and catastrophic collapse in 1450 B.C. • How? • Tidal Wave (tsunami) • Invasion of Mycenaeans from the mainland of Greece • Historians do not agree

  13. The Minoan’s and Mycenaean’s

  14. The First Greek State: Mycenae • Flourished between 1600 and 1100 B.C. • Made up of powerful monarchies • Resided in a fortified palace center • Built on hills and surrounded by gigantic stone walls

  15. The Mycenaeans • Warrior people, proud of battle accomplishments • Mycenaean states fought one another • Major earthquakes caused significant damage • By 1100 B.C. Mycenaean civilization collapsed.

  16. The Greek Dark Age • Approximately 1100 to 750 B.C. • Population declined and food production dropped • Few records of what happened exist • Significant developments (use of iron; adoption of Phoenician alphabet; works of Homer)

  17. Homer • Creator of epic poems – The Iliad and the Odyssey • Taught courage and honor (arete) through poems • Had some historical basis, but they also gave Greece an ideal past to serve as a model for future generations

  18. Homer’s Iliad Video: Analyzing the Myths Surrounding the Trojan War (Discovery Education) – 5 Minutes

  19. The Trojan War

  20. Homer’s Odyssey Video: Homer’s Odyssey (Discovery Education) – 7 Minutes

  21. Section 2 The Greek City-States

  22. The Polis: Center of Greek Life • By 750 B.C. The City State (Polis) became the central focus of Greek life • Gathering place typically a hill • Fortified area called a acropolis • Below the acropolis was an agora • Community with common identity and common goals

  23. GreekHoplites

  24. Hoplites in a PhalanxFormation

  25. Greek Colonies • Between 750 and 550 B.C. new Greek colonies established in southern Italy, southern France, eastern Spain, and northern Africa • Review of Page 117 Map

  26. Tyranny in the City-States • Greek tyrants were rulers who seized power by force from the aristocrats • Although it did not last, the rule of tyrants had ended the rule of the aristocrats in many city-states. • Development of democracy and commitment to oligarchy

  27. Sparta (The Spartans!) • Conquests created captured people (helots). • A Military State (Read & Discuss: Young People in Greece - Page 118)

  28. Government of Sparta • Oligarchy headed by 2 kings • Ephors (5 men elected each year) • A council of Elders (2 Kings and 28 citizens over age 60) • Assembly of male citizens • Remained Isolated from rest of world

  29. Athens • Political turmoil leads to drastic change and the creation of the Athenian democracy

  30. Ancient Athens

  31. Section 3 Classical Greece

  32. The Challenge of Persia • The Persian Wars (499 – 479 B.C.) – Review of map on page 122 • Legend of Athenian Runner. Today’s marathon is based on this heroic story. • Relate to The Movie “300” • Ultimately the Greeks defeat the Persians ending the war

  33. The Growth of the Athenian Empire • After the defeat of the Persians, Athens takes over the leadership of the Greek world. • Form a defensive alliance called the Delian League • Athens creates an empire under Pericles • Democracy flourishes (Age of Pericles)

  34. Age of Pericles • Creation of a direct democracy (In Athens all male citizens participated and voted) • City officials ran the government daily • Development of ostracism – Banning of a harmful political figure from the city for 10 years • Massive rebuilding after Persian war

  35. Age of Pericles

  36. The Great Peloponnesian War • Between Athenian Empire and Sparta (Very different societies) • Athens eventually surrenders • Overall the Greek City states were significantly weakened • Map review (Page 124) • Primary source reading (Plague in Athens – Page 991) Read & Discuss

  37. Daily Life in Classical Athens • 5th Century B.C. • 150,000 Citizens in Athens • 43,000 Were adult males with political power • 35,000 foreigners with law protection • 100,000 Slaves (Common in Athens) • Economy based on farming and trade • The family and the role of women

  38. Eyewitness to History • Read Together and discuss: An Athenian Husband Explains His Wife’s Duties (Page 126)

  39. Section 4 The Culture of Classical Greece

  40. Greek Religion • Greek Gods and Goddesses (Mount Olympus) • Zeus (The Chief God and Father of the Gods) • Greek Religious rituals involved prayers often combined with gifts to the gods based on the principle “I gave so that you will give”

  41. Greek Religion (Continued) • Festivals Honored the Gods • First Olympic games held at the Olympic Festival in 776 B.C. (Read and Discuss – Page 130 “The Way it Was”) • Learned the will of the gods through an oracle (sacred shrine where a god or goddess revealed the future through a priest or priestess)

  42. Olympic Games

  43. Greek Drama • Plays were in outdoor theatres in the form of tragedies. Presented as trilogies (set of 3 plays with a common theme) • Greek Playwrights – Aeschyius, Sophocles, and Euripides • Themes – • Good and Evil - Nature of Human Beings • Nature of Divine forces - Individual Rights • Comedy (After tragedies)

  44. Greek Philosophy • Socrates – The Socratic Method (Question and Answer format to lead people to their own reasoning). Sentenced to death for “Corrupting youth” • Plato – Great Philosopher. A student of Socrates. Explained views of government in “The Republic”. • Aristotle – A student of Plato. Differing view of government.

  45. Greek Architecture • Temples dedicated to a god or goddess • Center walled rooms (statues/treasures/gifts) • Surrounded by columns • Most famous temple (The Parthenon) • Located in Athens • Built around 440 B.C. • Dedicated to Athena, the patron goddess of Athens

  46. The Parthenon

  47. Section 5 Alexander and the Hellenistic Kingdoms

  48. The Threat of Macedonia • Macedonia (North of Greece) emerged as a powerful kingdom by the end of the 5th Century • Greeks looked down on the Macedonians as uncivilized foreigners • King Philip II and his powerful army defeated several united Greek states in 338 B.C. • King Philip was assassinated in 336 B.C.

  49. Alexander the Great • King Phillip II had wanted to go after Persia next • Alexander was the son of King Philip II and took over as King of Macedonia at the age of 20 • Alexander took over the quest of attacking the Persian Empire