NORTH VS. SOUTH - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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NORTH VS. SOUTH
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NORTH VS. SOUTH

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  1. NORTH VS. SOUTH STRENGTHS, WEAKNESSES, MILITARY STRATERGY, AND BATTLES OF THE CIVIL WAR

  2. NORTHERN CHARACTERISTICS • Diverse, fast growing population • High concentration of railroads • Many factories producing manufactured goods • Well-developed telegraph system

  3. Southern Characteristics • Economy based on agriculture • Reliance on Slave labor • Few cities • Few factories • Further between towns- less developed railroads

  4. NORTHERN ADVANTAGES • Population: North: 21.5 million > South: 9 Million • Railroad Mileage: North: 21,700 Miles > South: (Not same gage) 9,000 Miles • Factories: 110,100 > 20,600 • At the start of the war, the value of all manufactured goods produced in all the Confederate states added up to less than one-fourth of those produced in New York State alone.

  5. Northern Disadvantages • Divided public opinion- some didn’t want free slaves • Away from homes- climate • Under-trained and timid generals

  6. SOUTHERN ADVANTAGES • LEADERSHIP: 7 of 8 military schools located in the South- Most officers went with South • MILITARY TACTICS: South was defending which meant was less costly: “War of attrition”- Bleed opponent to death • MORALE: Southerners were more willing to fight-felt to preserve way of life- Some Northerners thought it was to free slave and they didn’t want that

  7. Southern Weaknesses • Agricultural Economy- Can’t shoot cotton balls • No navy and army- Had to Develop • No national government- Still for strong states rights • Few railroads

  8. NORTHERN TACTICS: Anaconda Plan- Crush the South • Control Mississippi River: Split West & East • Control Major Rail Road Junctions: Stop Southern supplies • Blockade South: Cut off trade of cotton- cut off money • Take Richmond: Capital of South • Organized by Winfield Scott • Felt it would take 3 years and 300,000 men

  9. Northern Tactics: Anaconda Plan’s Weakness • Navy- Couldn’t fully blockade South • Army was small • Underestimated the will of South

  10. BORDER STATES • Had to treat Kentucky, Missouri, Delaware and Marylandwith kid gloves- keep them happy • Reason Lincoln didn’t free slaves in that area during the Emancipation Proclamation

  11. MEDICINE AND TECHNOLOGY

  12. DISEASES • No knowledge about how diseases were spread • Highest chance of dying of diseases came within the first 5-6 months: Why? • For every one solider that died of wounds, 2 died of diseases: Diarrhea, dysentery, typhoid, etc.

  13. AMPUTATIONS • 3 out 4soldiers were hit in the extremities (arms & legs) • Accounted for 75 % of all the surgeries • Would use same saw all day, wiped on apron if too slick / No Anesthesia

  14. Clara Barton • “Angel of the Battlefield” • Worked in the patent office- resigned to become a nurse • Organized, petition, and collected medical supplies for the troops • After the war, started the American Red Cross

  15. Modern War • With all of its advancements, the Civil War is considered the first modern war

  16. RIFLED GUNS • Go greater distance and be more destructive than previous wars • Made direct, frontal charges more deadly- Pickett’s Charge • Had more of an impact on the severity of the war than any other weapon advancement

  17. Shells and Canister • Replaced cannon balls • Artillery would go over battle field, explode, and send shrapnel over the field- more like a bomb

  18. TELEGRAPH • Made communications among troops, regiments, and capitals more efficient • Made communications more secure • First air to ground communications: From Hot Air Balloon

  19. RAILROADS • Movement of troops and supplies quicker- allowed for larger armies because didn’t have to march

  20. HOT AIR BALLOONS • Allowed for spying and recon. • Developed by North, Lincoln wanted to us, refused at first in field • Other troops would attempt to shoot down balloons

  21. Iron- Clad Ship • Metal covered ship- more durable meant longer Navy battles • Developed by South 1st, but info. Was leaked to the North • Monitor (Union-All iron) vs. Merrimack (Confederates- iron plates)- First navy battle between iron ships: Union Victory

  22. THEMERRIMACK- CONFEDERATES THE MONITOR: UNION

  23. Technology: Others • Submarines • Torpedoes- depth charges

  24. Major Civil War Battles

  25. Jefferson Davis • President of the Confederate States of America

  26. Abraham Lincoln • 16th President of the United States • Elected in 1860 • Took Office in 1861 • Assassinated April 14, 1865 by John Wilkes Booth

  27. Robert E. Lee • Commander of the Army of Virginia • Confederate

  28. Ulysses S. Grant • Commanded army in the west • Took Vicksburg • Brought to the east to fill in for the inept generals • Lee surrendered to Grant • “Unconditional Surrender” Grant

  29. Other Union Generals • George McClellan- • Ambrose Burnside- • Joseph Hooker- • George Meade- • Winfield Scott-

  30. Other Confederate Generals • Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson- • P.G.T Beauregard- • James Longstreet- • Joseph Johnston- Braxton Braggs- John B. Hood-

  31. Fort Sumter • First battle of Civil War • Confederates fire on fort located in Charleston (SC) Harbor • Union held fort for 34 hours and abandoned fort • Only death came when shooting cannon for 100 gun salute

  32. First Bull Run • First major land battle • Union troops were unprepared- Reporters from D.C. followed troops • Located in Manassas, VA- major railroad junction • Started to push them back, but “Stonewall” Jackson rallied troops • Union forced to retreat back to Washington with major and embarrassing defeat • This battle showed the war would not be easy

  33. The Battle of Shiloh • Took place in the western theater of the war • Took place near Corinth, MS on TN and MS border • Union troops had to fall back after first day, but U.S Grant would not retreat- Proves his willingness to fight • Union won battle • Shiloh was the bloodiest single day (until Antietam) of fighting in war and ended all hope that this would be a quick war

  34. Monitor vs. Merrimack • Merrimack- Southern wooden ship with iron bolted to it • Monitor- Union ship, completely of iron, took 100 days • Fought to a draw, but Merrimack withdrew- never to meet again • Wooden navies would now be obsolete

  35. Battle of Antietam • AKA- Battle of Sharpsburg (Known as this mainly in South) • Lee hoped a victory on Northern soil would increase European support • McClellan (U) figured out where the Confederates were because of Lee’s orders wrapped around cigars were found – but he delayed and gave Lee time to prepare • Lee’s 14,000 causalities (in 1 day) was a 1/3 of his army

  36. Battle of Antietam • Became the BLOODIEST SINGLE DAY of war • McClellan could have crushed Lee’s army but delayed • With great Union victory, Lincoln issued hisEmancipation Proclamation

  37. Emancipation Proclamation • Issued after the Battle of Antietam • Stated that effective January 1, 1863- All slaves held in areas still in rebellion would be free (Did NOT free all slaves) • Was limited because of border states of KY, MO, and MD- Lincoln did not want to force them towards the Confederates • Northerners feared an influx of uneducated African Americans from the south would threaten their jobs, but many were in favor- Continued split in the North • Many Southerners did not recognize Lincoln’s right to pass a law in their country because they felt they were no longer part of the United States • Although the Emancipation Proclamation did not free all the slaves, it did mark a significant shift from the war being simply about the unification of the Union, to the ending of slavery.

  38. Ambrose Burnside • Because of his delay, Lincoln again removed McClellan from command and gave it to Ambrose Burnside (From Liberty, IN)