U.S. History—Ch. 4 Terms—see page 155 Fort Sumter—(Ch. 3—p. 144) Monitor and Merrimack (p. 163) Copperheads Martial law Suspension of writ of habeas corpus (p.171) Anaconda Plan (p. 159) Emancipation Proclamation Gettysburg Gettysburg Address Siege 13th Amendment Appomattox Courthouse Matthew Brady
Civil War Map Directions—see page atlas p.64 1. Label each state and western territory 2. Shade the border (southern/non secession) states yellow 3. Shade the Union States blue (including California and Oregon). 4. Shade the Confederate states red 5. Shade the western territories brown 6. Label the Mississippi River, Ohio River, Atlantic Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, Great Lakes 7. Label the capital of the U.S., and the capital of The Confederacy.
North vs. South U.S.A./ Union Flag: Stars and Stripes C.S.A./Confederacy Flag: Stars and Bars
North vs. South Cause: To preserve the Union… (from slavery and secession) Cause: States Rights… (to have slaves and secede)
North vs. South President Abraham Lincoln Capital: Washington, D.C. President Jefferson Davis Capital: Richmond Virginia
North vs. South Yankees “Billy Yank” Blue Rebels “Johnny Reb” Gray
North vs. South Advantages: Money Population Railroads factories Advantages: Leaders Attitude Home turf (mostly)
North vs. South Leaders: McClellan Grant * Sherman Hooker Burnside (“sideburns”) Leaders: Lee* Stonewall Jackson Johnston (Texan) Stuart
North vs. South Songs: “Battle Hymn of the Republic” “When Johnny Comes Marching Home” Songs: “Dixie” “Bonnie Blue Flag”
North vs. South Strategy: Anaconda Plan Cut supply lines at Miss. River, railroads and coasts with blockades Attack capital Strategy: Fight defensive war Strike hard in North with a clear victory Get help from England
Battles—N or S (who won?) 1. Fort Sumter—S.C.—S 2. Monitor and Merrimac (ironclads)—blockade—N 3. Bull Run (1st and 2nd)—Virginia—S 4. Antietam—bloodiest day—Maryland—N?—led to Emancipation Proclamation 5. Vicksburg—Miss—led to control of Miss River—N 6. Tenn. to Georgia—Sherman’s fiery march to sea—N 7. Gettysburg—Penn—turning point!—N 8. Richmond captured—N 9. Appomattox Courthouse—Lee surrendered to Grant—April 9, 1865
Gettysburg Address Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent, a new nation, conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal. Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation, or any nation so conceived and so dedicated, can long endure. We are met on a great battlefield of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of that field, as a final resting place for those who here gave their lives that that nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this. But, in a larger sense, we cannot dedicate—we cannot consecrate—we cannot hallow—this ground. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract. The world will little note, nor long remember what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here. It is for us the living, rather, to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us—that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion—that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain—that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom— and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth. November 8, 1863 Written by Lincoln himself Summary of the case of American unity and nationhood Refers to The Declaration of Independence 272 words Considered one of the greatest American documents What does he say was at stake in the Civil war? How is the theme of hope portrayed?
Casualties 600,000 dead 400,000 wounded 1 million casualties Note: more Americans died in three days (July 1863) at Gettysburg than in the entire Vietnam War (1964-1973)
Aftermath April 9, 1865—war ended April 14, 1865—Lincoln shot at Ford’s Theater April 15, 1865—Lincoln died—Andrew Johnson became the 17th President of the United States
Interpreting Information—Refer to the Graphs According to the graph, which side during the Civil War had a loss of almost five times as many as the other side? (N or S) Which side outspent the other by over four times? Which side had less than half of the RR line of the other? How many Northern soldiers were engaged? Southern soldiers? Which war had the least amount of soldiers engaged in battle? Which war had the most soldiers after The Civil War? How many Marines died in The Mexican War? Which war had the lowest casualty statistic? Which war had the highest deaths not by battle?
Check North North South N—2, 213,363 S—unknown (600,000 to 1,500,000) Mexican War War of 1812 11 War of 1812 Civil War
AP Emphasis Popular sovereignty—first test of this occurred in Kansas following the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854 Border states, particularly Kentucky and Maryland, had strategic locations and important industrial and agricultural resources Battle of Antietam was seen by Europeans to stay neutral and profit from a divided U.S. Antietam led to Emancipation Proclamation, which changed the Northern motivation to a great moral cause and rallied anti-slavery sentiment in England and France
AP—Politics during CW National banking system started provided a unified currency Congress charted the building of the Transcontinental Railroad Congress passed The Homestead Act of 1862 High tariffs passed to protect American industry in North Presidential power expanded under Lincoln (habeas corpus) Dred Scott decision overturned by 13th Amendment
AP—Lincoln’s Objective explained in a letter to Horace Greeley, August, 1862 “As to the policy I seem to be pursuing, as you say, I have not meant to leave any one in doubt. I would save the union. I would save it in the shortest way under the Constitution. The sooner the national authority can be restored, the nearer the union will be to the union it was. If there be those who would not save the union unless they could at the same time save Slavery, I do not agree with them. If there be those who would not save the union unless they could at the same time destroy Slavery, I do not agree with them. My paramount object is to save the union, and not either to save or destroy Slavery.
If I could save the union without freeing any slave, I would do it—if I could save it by freeing all the slaves, I would do it—and if I could do it by freeing some and leaving others alone I would also do that. What I do about Slavery and The Colored Race, I do because I believe it helps to save this union; and what I forbear, I forbear because I do not believe it would help to save the union. I shall do less whenever I shall believe what I am doing hurts the cause; and I shall do more whenever I believe doing more will help the cause. I shall try to correct errors when shown to be errors; and I shall adopt new views so fast as they shall appear to be true views. I have here stated my purpose according to my view of official duty; and I intend no modification of my oft-expressed personal wish that all men everywhere could be free.”