Sit-in Movement • Cause : segregated lunchrooms • Event – Jan. 1960, sit-in at the Woolworth in Greensboro N.C. • Effect – Sit-in movement spreads across the South.
Freedom Riders • Cause – Need to integrate bus terminals in the South( Led by CORE) • Events – May 1961 Bombing of buses, attacks at bus terminals, arrest by officials • Effect – By 1962, segregated interstate travel ended.
Birmingham Protest • Cause – The Kennedy administration busy with Cuban Missile crisis and the Cold War • Event – Spring 1963 – Using the young to bring about social justice. The Letter from Birmingham Jail. TV showing the brutality towards Blacks • Effect – The March on Washington
The March on Washington • Cause – The need to get Congress to pass a Civil Rights Bill • The event – August 28, 1968 – over 200,000 peaceful demonstrators - Ends with MLK’s I have a Dream speech • Effect – JFK assassination leads to LBJ pushing the Civil Rights Act of 1964 through Congress
Mississippi Freedom Summer • Cause - Civil Rights Act of 1964 • Event – People from throughout the U.S. descend on Mississippi to register Black voters. Southern Racist kill workers, bomb churches and businesses. Murder od Medgar Evers • Effect – The Selma March
Selma to Montgomery March • Cause – the violence of the Freedom Summer • Event – Sunday March 7, 1965 A peaceful march turns violent with White law enforcement attacking peaceful, praying marchers. It’s televised • Effect- An Angry LBJ orders Congress to pass a Voting Rights Act to give teeth to the laws for voters.
The Watts Riots • Cause – Police brutality • Events – August 8, 1965, Racial uprising in Los Angeles based on pent up anger • Effect – The Kerner Report shows that White racism and poverty caused the riots.
Malcolm X and Black Power • Cause – economic disparity between the races. • Events – Malcolm X – Nation of Islam- gives up last name for an unknown. Discuss separatism, Black Panthers • Effect – major splits between groups. Economic issues are most important.
Martin Luther King’s Assassination • Cause – In Memphis to negotiated a Garbage strike • Event – Gives the “Been to the Mountaintop Speech” Next day on April 4, 1968, King assassinated by James Earl Ray. • Effect – National Mourning and riots throughout the nation. Congress does pass the Civil Rights Act of 1968 ( fair housing provisio.)