Civil War Timeline By: Casey Hawley
Slavery • Since the early days of American colonization slaves were used by the dominant white population. Roughly 100 Years after the declaration of independence, the north abolished slavery, but the south continued to own and use slaves. The south sought independence from the north; while the north wanted to keep the union together. A war was inevitable, but nobody knew it would end up being so divisive.
Lincoln Becomes president • 11 states seceded from the union during the civil war. The most dominant reasons was because of Lincoln becoming president, and his plan to abolish slavery. These states were known as the Confederacy • South CarolinaMississippiFloridaAlabamaGeorgia LouisianaTexas Virginia ArkansasNorth Carolina Tennessee
The war begins • One of the first attacks was on Fort Sumter April 12 1861 • The attack created nationalism in the union. • 75,000 people volunteered to fight in the civil war, and many people supported the war, crowding the streets waving the Union flag. • Likewise in the south, after hearing about the victory of Fort Sumter 100,000 men volunteered to fight in the civil war • The south was much stronger at the beginning of the war because of their Military and leadership
Early Years • The south had a much stronger army then the north. They had better leadership, and a better set of skills. Robert E. Lee led the confederate forces, and George Meade and Ulysses S. Grant led the Union (both at different times) • Fought in the U.S. From South Pennsylvania to New Mexico, almost 3 million people were involved in the war, and many others supported their efforts
The Union’s three Strategies • Blockade/close off confederate ports to stop its import/exports • Invade south and split into thirds • Capture the confederate capital – Richmond Virginia • The South only had to withstandthe North’s attacks • The south had less people, and their resources lacked compared to the north, so they relied heavily on the British to aid them • The North’s blockade often stopped most of their ships from coming through though
The Battlefield • With Lincolns 90 day volunteer enlistments ending, the union tried to go and capture Richmond. (A few months after the war began) • The confederates came with reinforcements and drove them back farther and farther north • Lincoln went through many leaders/Generals during the first few years but all of them suffered horrible defeats in battles which prolonged the North victory • The south almost had the north in their hands, but when a patrol found Lee’s plan to take Washington, the North set up ambushes and killed 11,000 confederates at Antietam Creek, forcing Lee to retreat
Gettysburg • Fought in Pennsylvania • July 1-3 1863 • North vs. South • Union Won • Most casualties of all the battles in the civil war • both sides meet on the fields and fought there • Union was on the crest of a low ridge • Confeds needed to take them down from their high ground to win • After July 3rd, confed's general George Pickett sent 15,000 troops, they charged but got driven back immediately...7,000 of them died • Lincoln told Meade after the victory "Don't let the enemy escape" • On July 4th, Lee's Confederate army retreated to Virginia • Lincoln was angry because he knew they could have won the war right there if they pursued the confederates
After Gettysburg • It seemed that after Gettysburg, the Union went on to win many key battles (Vicksburg, and Chattanooga) • Many southern people were starved because of the north's blockade of the southern ports • Only 4 states remained by the end of 1863 • South and North Carolina, Georgia, and Virginia
Behind the lines • Many people didn`t believe in Lincoln`s leadership, and they tried to imprint their opinion`s on others in north, although the military silenced them by sticking them in jail • Of course there were people who were against war...in this case they were called the copperheads
Lincoln’s plans • As the war proceeded Lincoln tried to focus his intentions of the war on Slavery • Many European countries were against the idea of slavery too, and the North tried to punish slave holders by stripping them of their property • Lincoln announced the freedom of slaves in in 9/22/1862. • They were released new years day 1863 • This term was called EMANCIPATION PROCLAMATION
Results from e. Proclamation • Many native Americans joined the north in their war efforts to get back at the south • For southern states, 800,000 men were still enslaved so Lincoln used a different version of Emancipation Proclamation, where all the slaves were free, but the North had to pay for them for them to become free citizens
The Armies • At the beginning of the war, there was lots of enthusiasm about fighting, but after the blood shed, and the economy, and the lack of motivation to fight, not as many people were volunteering anymore, so the North and South resorted to conscription (1862) • The union didn’t have to fight if they paid the government $300, and the confederates didn't have to fight if they hired a substitute to fight • The war was often called a rich mans war, and a poor mans fight.
African Americans in the war • At first Lincoln opposed of the idea of them fighting with the Union because he feared that them fighting would be resented by the border states • After the proclamation laws, 350,000 (approx) African Americans joined the war • They were not treated with the same respect(less money, lower ranks) • The south refused to ever have African Americans people fight for them
Native Americans in the war • The Confederation acted on the Native Americans quickly at the beginning of the war to get them on their side. • The Union set treaties in place with the Native Americans so they didn’t have to fight against them (1864) • Those who did fight for the Confederates had their land taken away from them by the Union
Women! • Women worked on farms and in factories, were nurses, and government clerks, and cooked for the men, sewed, and washed their clothes throughout the war
Supplying the Armies • The South was defeated mainly because of their lack of resources • The north, even though sometimes had rotten clothes, or withered boots, were still better equipped then their enemy • The south also had a tough time financing the war, because they were going to sell cotton to Europe, but because of the Unions blockade it was near impossible for them to do that • Instead they implemented taxes • The north got a lot of money for taxation and the rest from borrowing, or issuing paper money • The Federal Government issued $2.5 billion worth of bonds • They issued back $400 million only in paper money
Near the end of the war • Grant decided to win the war he needed to go into “total war” (1864) • The union would destroy the confederacy by killing civilians, taking/stealing any resources, and destroying everything in their path
Grant • Grant’s leadership was very different. His Union army doubled the population of the south, so he often sent his men into sacrificial raids because he knew he could regain men, but the south could not (served as leader of Union army from 1864-1865) • In 1864 they had surrounded the Richmond capital, and were continuing to push back the Confederates • The Union destroyed towns, and cities that they won so the confederates couldn’t regain territory • The confederates burned and destroyed the cities that they passed too, to slow them down
Richmond • The Union had beaten the confederates in the war in the west, and all was left was the small army protecting the Virginian capital • In February 1865 the Confederates marched north through the Carolina's destroying everything in their path in hope to meet with Lee’s force and the Union at Richmond • Lee could no longer hold Richmond, so the confederates retreated and by April 4 1865, Lincoln was able to walk the streets formally known as the confederate capital
Re-elected • Lincoln was re-elected, mostly due to the Union victory in Atlanta (mid 1864) which boosted the war effort, and helped him take office again • Lincoln realized in his second inauguration, that the north and south had a divine vengeance because of their wrong to African American people
Lee Surrenders • The Union interfered and stopped a confederate army trying to unite with another confederate army which essentially ended the war (March 1865) • Grant told Lee to surrender, and offered him very generous terms • Lee had no choice but to surrender, ending the war and re-uniting the two nations • April 9, 1865 was the date the war ended • Over 600,000 people died in the civil war
John Wilkes Booth • April 14 1865 John Wilkes Booth assassinated Lincoln at Ford’s Theatre • His death was the ‘bind up of the nation’s wounds’ • ‘The heaviest blow that has ever fallen upon the people of the south’
Reconstructing the South • After the civil war, the south laid in ruins. Economically, politically, and socially the land was destroyed from South Carolina to southern Georgia. There was no government left. No banks(therefore no money) courts, judges, and police. No transportation, and transportation routes, and plantation systems collapsed because of the freedom of slaves.
After Slavery • Since land owners of plantations didn’t own slaves anymore, their land and economy receded. • Poor African Americans, and whites became tenant farmers (farming land they rented) • They also became sharecroppers (people who worked the owners land, and got a share of the crops in return) • These arrangements had side effects. Sometimes farmers only farmed cotton and/or tobacco, and most of the time the owners were still in debt from paying for fertilizers, animals, food etc...
After slavery continued... • After the civil war the slaves were free to do what they wished. African Americans were strengthened by the freedom, which reunited them with families, and gave them equal rights. They started to choose last names, and began working for themselves.
Freedmen’s Bureau • Near the end of the war, Freedmen’s Bureau was created to help refugees, freedmen, and African Americans. At first it gave food, and clothes, then started offering education and jobs and land. Their primary focus was on African Americans so they could help them adjust to their new freedom. • Got Teachers to come from the north, to teach the students (children and adults) who were eager to learn. • They also tried to get the African Americans to sign labour agreements with planters, but the planters often cheated the men and women in their contracts because they couldn`t read/write • African Americans also wanted to own their own land. They were given 40 acres of land to help re-create their lives, until Andrew Johnson (President) re-ordered the land to its former owner
The south • The reconstruction involved rebuilding and repairing war damages, restructuring southern society by giving rights to former enslaved African Americans, and readmitting southern states back to the Union. • Lincoln did not want to punish the south, he only wanted to restore the union. • Near the end of the war he created a plan for peace that would be shown once the war concluded. He would offer amnesty/pardon to all southerners who swore loyalty to the U.S. • Lincoln also urged that all African American who could read and write, and served in the Union army were allowed to vote • Lincoln wanted charity for all, but when he realized that wasn’t possible he began to talk with Radical Congressional leaders. At this crucial point, he was assassinated
Andrew Johnson • After Lincoln’s death Johnson tried to sought for the same reconstruction policies Lincoln did. • Not many people liked him though, because he was self-righteous, racist, hot-tempered, stubborn, and crude • Johnson got every state to return to the union, and repay the debt from the war except Texas • Although the leniency of Johnson’s plan to re-unite the country let confederal leadership retake power in the southern states
Southern States and African Americans • “Ours is and ever shall be a government of white men.” • Johnson, and Lincoln wanted equality of race in the south, except the southerners wanted to follow the quote listed above. • Many southern states still did not treat African Americans equally which let them pass a series of laws known as the black codes • The black codes made it seem like the African Americans were still enslaved. They were not allowed to do anything, but work on farms, have steady work, handle weapons, serve on juries, vote, and testify against whites • The north was alarmed and outraged by this. In 1866 they made the Civil Rights Bill which enforced power to protect the rights of freed men and women.
Fourteenth Amendment • Congress passed this in June 1866 fearing that the Civil rights act might be overturned in court • The amendment gave citizenship to include African Americans and required that no state deny any person the equal protection of the laws • prohibited confederate political leaders from paying confederate war debts, and barred them from holding public office • 1866 congressional election was important because it would reveal if the congress was stronger then the president. Congress needed to win in order to pass these laws, and control the direction of reconstruction since Johnson was not in any means willing to do so. • Congress won, and was given a mandate to enact their own reconstruction program
Congress Reconstruction • Now in control, the Radical Republicans began enforcing their policies for reconstruction • One goal was to forbid confederate leaders to have a role in governing the South • Reserved African Americans right to vote • Sweep away new state governments in the south, and replace them with military rule
Reconstruction Legislation • March 1867 congress passed an act to abolish the south’s new state government, and replace it with military rule • Besides Tennessee the former confederate states were divided into 5 military districts, each under one Union general’s command • Each of the states had to hold a constitutional convention with delegates elected by adult males to frame a state constitution that gave African Americans the right to vote • If the voters accepted the constitution, a state government could be elected. • If they accepted the 14th amendment, and if it was allowed to be part of the constitution, then the state could be readmitted by the union • By 1868 Louisiana, Alabama, North and South Carolina, Arkansas, and Florida regained statehood. • In 1869 congress passed the fifteenth amendment providing that the right to vote wouldn’t be denied to anyone • States who had not readmitted with the Reconstruction Act (Georgia, Virginia, Mississippi, and Texas) accept the 15th amendment as another condition for re-admitting in the Union
Carpetbag Government • By 1870, the 10 states under military rule had been readmitted to the Union. • Radical Reconstruction had disenfranchised the right to vote from many former confederates, thus many southern white men boycotted elections • Two groups were left: Scalawags (southern sympathizers of the union) and Carpetbaggers[got the name because they came with cheap suitcases made of carpet fabric] (northerners who went south) • Most carpetbaggers were greedy, and had a rep. for graft, fraud and waste. • Carpetbag governments established public schools, and facilities for African American kids • Carpetbag governments were seen as the best thing for African Americans, and because of that, they often voted for Republican Candidates
Radicals in power • March 1867, congress passed the Army Appropriation Act which limited the President’s power as commander in chief • They also passed the Tenure of Office Act, which required Senate approval for the President to remove any government official • Johnson disregarded the Tenure of Office act, and fired the secretary of war, and hired General Grant. • Senate rejected Grant, and in favour Stanton signed • 3 days after Stanton signed, Johnson was impeached (charged with High crimes and misdemeanours) Johnson remained in office for his last few months, but was powerless to challenge the Radicals • In 1868 General Grant was elected President of the U.S. • He won because he was supported by the carpetbag governments of the south
Restoring southern power • Unable to strike the Federal Government, opponents made secret resistance societies (KKK) • By 1872 they had been greatly suppressed by Federal Troops, although the Klan and similar organizations still contributed to Southern Governments • By 1876 only South Carolina, Florida, and Louisiana governments were not influenced by these groups • One reason for the Democratic successes in the South was because Northerners weren’t liking the Radical Reconstruction anymore. • In 1872 the Liberal Republicans became popular because they opposed the Radical Reconstruction • They found Grant unfit for presidency, and didn’t want him to run for office again • Grant ended up winning, but his power was weakened, making his protection over African Americans lose
1877 Compromise • 1876 election brought the end of Radical Reconstruction • Democratic candidate was an electoral vote short of majority • Charges of massive voting fraud flew from Florida, South Carolina, and Louisiana • Republicans complained that the democrats stopped African Americans from voting, and the democrats accused Republicans of using Federal troops to vote • Hayes (Republican) won the election March 2 1877
After Reconstruction • The south after reconstruction was similar to the south before the civil war. White southern democrats returned to power, and African Americans lost many of their rights
Segregation • Segregation in the north and south had been a way of life. Everywhere African Americans were separated from whites. Jim Crow laws separated them fully from whites • In 1875 congress passed a Civil Rights act that all people had equal right to public places, and transportation • 1883 the supreme court ruled that the act was “unconstitutional” • 1890 the Jim Crow laws were common in the south
The New south • By late 1870s there was talk of the “New South” • An alliance between powerful white southerners, and Northern financiers brought the economic rebuilding of the south • By 1890 the south had twice the railroad mileage than it did in 1860 • This encouraged industrialization in the South • Tobacco processing became a big business, and cotton farming became less popular • With these industrialization advancements their economy was booming, and by 1900 it was four times what it was in 1860
1900 African Americans • Reconstruction aided the south, and also caused much bitterness • Democrats provided limited help to Southern African Americans, whose rights they promised to defend • Congress closed the Freedmen’s Bureau after five years, and the African Americans remained as sharecroppers, and tenant farmers • Only until the 1900s were the Fourteenth and Fifteenth amendment revived. They provided legal basis, and the inspiration for movements for African Americans to obtain their full citizenship