Gender as a Cross Cutting Issue Central to Good Governance Induction Training, RIAM November 2006 Dr Shirley Randell & Restituta Mukantagara
Gender as a cross cutting issue Rationale for strong emphasis on gender in Rwanda • Poverty Reduction • Economic Development • Good Governance
What are the international, regional and local contexts that have led to gender being recognised as central to poverty reduction, economic development and good governance
International Context • CEDAW – Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Discrimination Against Women • Beijing Platform for Action (BPFA) • Millennium Development Goals, particularly MDG3, Gender equality and women’s empowerment, but all – poverty, water, education, health etc
Regional Context • NEPAD objectives – eradicating long term disparities and promoting equality and equity between men and women • The Rights of Women in Africa is a Protocol to the African Charter on Human and People’ Rights • The SolemnDeclaration of African State Leaders (2004) expresses support for the parity principle • Rwanda soon to join the East African Community which also has gender priorities
National Context • Constitution - Article 9 of the Constitution states that: “30 percent of all decision-making structures shall be reserved for women • 2003 Government commitment to gender issues and mainstreaming • Decentralisation policy • - favours representation of women at the various administrative levels • MIGEPROF and National Gender policy
National ContextVision 2020 • Gender is a key aspect of Pillar 3 in the Government of Rwanda’s Vision 2020 • Inclusion of gender will lead to effective implementation of all other pillars
Economic Development Poverty Reduction Strategy • Gender as a cross cutting issue is a key aspect of all planning for Rwanda’s EDPRS 2006-2008 planning, including the 12 sector working groups • Gender is a critical component of HIV/AIDS which is also a major cross cutting issue in the EDPRS
Table 1 Status on International Indicators, Rwanda, 2005 HDI Human Development Index GDI Gender Development Index
Table 2: Development Indicatorsin Rwanda by Sex • Development IndicatorsFemaleMale • Life expectancy at birth 45.6 42.1 • Combined gross enrolment • ratio for primary, secondary • and tertiary levels 48.6% 58% • Adult literacy rate • (age 15 and above) 48.6 % 70.5% • Estimated earned income • (PPP US $)$US985 $US1,583
Table 2: Development Indicatorsin Rwanda by Sex Female Male • Women living below poverty line 65.3% • Total rate of economic activity 82.3%93.5% • Employment in the non-agricultural sector 24% n/a • Participation in tertiary education 39%61% • Participation in Government at Ministerial level 35.7% 64.3% • Participation in National Parliament 48% 52%
Challenges to the policy of gender as a cross cutting issue • Internationally and nationally the policy of mainstreaming gender in practice areas has seen gender issues neglected and slipping off the agenda. • There has been a reduction in the efforts to empower women, the other side of the coin to gender equality • There is very limited gender budgeting in planning and decision making processes • There is very limited gender auditing to assess progress
Challenges to the policy of gender as a cross cutting issue • There is a high demand from the national and district governments, civil society and women’s organisations in Rwanda for support in gender equality and women’s empowerment strategies and activities in addition to the gender mainstreaming/cross-cutting strategy.
Case Studies from SNV Experience • Training of Advisers to all be gender sensitive and able to implement gender principles in all practice areas • Preparing a manual for mainstreaming gender into Water, Sanitation and Health programs • Advocacy at national level for the inclusion of gender in the EDPRS
Case Study 1 • SNV Rwanda advisers unfamiliar with gender concepts and practice • 10 day, 30 hour interactive in-house gender and development course delivered • All practice areas prepare gender action plans • Significant progress made in integrating gender in NRM – biogas, RALG – education, MAP – honey, PPT • In-house gender committee established
Case Study 2: Training Manual for Mainstreaming Gender into WASH Programs • COFORWA approached SNV for gender training • of management and technicians • PROTOS approached SNV for gender training for coordinator • Field visit for focus groups • Gender training manual prepared incorporating chapters from SNV manual and new chapters on gender and water • Manual trialled with gender adviser - October • Manual to be trialled in field - November
Case Study 3: advocacy at national level - EDPRS • SNV approached MINECOFIN, UNIFEM, UNDP, DFID about engendering the EDPRS process • Together we called for a gender workshop for all Ministries and stakeholders in the EDPRS • We set up gender shadow Sector Working Groups to monitor the work of every SWG • SNV staff were invited to participate in SWGs and Shadow SWGs - backward looking report on PRSP
Case Study 4: EDPRS (cont) • Cross-cutting issues SWG developed checklists for each of the four cross cutting issues, including gender • MIGEPROF, UNDP, UNIFEM/SNV national workshop on gender based policy analysis • Gender representatives attended each of the sector log frame exercises • The cross cutting issues SWG is now examining each log frame to ensure that gender is included appropriately
Tools for Mainstreaming Gender The checklist for mainstreaming gender as a cross-cutting issue in the EDPRS Dr Shirley Randell AM
Gender Subcommittee • Parliament - FFRP • Ministries – MIGEPROF, MINEDUC • Government agencies – NIS, NWC, NEPAD • Development partners – UNFEM, UNDP, UNFPA, UNICEF, DFID, Canadian Corporation • NGOs – SNV, RWLC, RAUW, WWP, African Rights, Profemmes • Academic institutions – KIST, KHI, KIE
Gender Goal By 2020, Rwandan women and men, girls and boys will have achieved equity of - voice, - participation and - access in every area of economic growth and poverty reduction represented in national policy and law.
PurposeBy 2012, gender equality canbe demonstrated, measured and verified using gender disaggregated national data to show that the country is on track to achieving: • Gender equality in halving the proportion of people living below the poverty line by 2015
Gender equality in reduced income disparity (Gini coefficient, shares of the poorest quintile in national consumption) • Gender equality in increased GDP per capita US$ • Gender equality within the increased average GDP growth rate (to 8%) • Gender equality in progress towards the MDGs
Five major areas • Gender-disaggregated data collection and reporting • Reproductive health rights • Access to business and services • Law and policy on legal, social, economic opportunities and physical protection • Educational achievement
Progress towards achieving gender equity • In Sectoral policies and their implementation, and in District plans and their implementation - demonstrated by every Sector/ District in their returns to the EDPRS AnnualProgress Review (APR). • Data and analysis to be presented in an annual composite national assessment of progress :> in the EDPRS APR, > in the Joint Budget Support Review > in the Minister of Finance’s presentation of the budget to Parliament.
Suggested Outputs • NIS: Gender-disaggregated data contained in all national surveys and reports by the National Institute of Statistics • Parliament/MIGEPROF: A new annual report: “Progress Towards Achieving Rwanda’s Commitment to its Women Citizens”.
Suggested Outputs (cont) • MIGEPROF or Gender Observatoire: resourced to collect, analyse and present national gender equity progress • All Sectors/ Districts: to establish gender-disaggregated data collections in their information systems for annual planning processes and annual reporting.
Suggested Outputs (cont) • NEPAD: to utilise this data and reporting • MINECOFIN: to ensure gender- disaggregated budget planning and execution data is available from all Sectors/ Districts.
Suggested Outputs (cont) • MINECOFIN: Terms of Reference/ instructions for APR to include gender in each Sectoral chapter and a gender summary page. • MINECOFIN: Gender-discussion to be scheduled for one of the annual Joint Budget Support Review meetings.
Women enabled to exercise their reproductive health rights • A reduction in the average number of children per woman from 6 to 5 by 2012 and to 4 by 2020. • A significantly increased contraceptive prevalence rate • A significant drop in the number of maternal deaths
Women enabled to exercise their reproductive health rights(cont) • A higher average age at which women have their first baby • Increased levels of female participation in the labour market, including formal sector employment
Suggested Outputs • MINISANTE: Increase the range of, and access to family planning methods - contraceptive prevalence rate increased from 10.3% to over 50% in 2020 • MINEDUC: Maintain equal numbers of girls and boys in education – primary completion of 95% by 2012 100% by 2015 - enrolment in lower secondary 52% by 2012 62% by 2015 • MIFOTRA: Reduce rate of youth unemployment/ underemployment by ½ within 5 years
Suggested Outputs (cont) • MIFOTRA: Strategies for female participation in formal employment and the labour market agreed by 2008 • MIFOTRA: Reduce rate of women’s unemployment/ underemployment by ½ within 5 years
Suggested Outputs (cont) • MINISANTE: Reduce the rate of maternal mortality from 750/100,000 to 600 in 2010 and 200 in 2020 • MINISANTE: Reduce the rate of infant mortality from 86/1000 to 80 in 2010 and 50 in 2020
Suggested Outputs (cont) • MINISANTE : Safe delivery and child-birth for women - increase births taking place with trained attendance from 31% to over 50% in 2011 • MINISANTE: National Information campaigns – designed to praise smaller families, explain contraception, deliver messages on safe delivery, provide messages on risks to infant mortality. • MINALOC/MINEDUC: Increase in access to safe drinking water and to sanitation (including toilets in schools)
3 Range of business and financial services expanded and differential levels of gender access addressed
Business and Financial Services (cont) • Micro finance gap between men and women reduced by 75% by 2012 • Revision of laws & policy to protect women’s ownership of land and other property • Number of women’s start-up businesses increased by 50% by 2012