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Sedimentary Rocks

Sedimentary Rocks

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Sedimentary Rocks

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  1. Sedimentary Rocks Sedimentary rocks are classified by the types of sediments that make up the rock

  2. What are sediments? • Definition: • Small, solid pieces of material that come from rocks or living things like bones, leaves, stems, etc

  3. Sizes of Sediments

  4. Sediments will layer up over time, forming layered rocks

  5. There are 4 main processes needed to form sedimentary rock: Step 1: EROSION (wash away) Forces of running water, wind, or ice that loosen & carry away fragments of rock Can you see the sediment moving in the water? Have you ever seen sediments being moved during a hard rain?

  6. There are 4 main processes needed to form sedimentary rock: Step 2: DEPOSITION (drop down) Sediments settle out of the water or wind carrying them & settle to the bottom of a lake or ocean. Sediments move down the sloped land & settle at the bottom. Over time these sediments layer up.

  7. There are 4 main processes needed to form sedimentary rock: Step 3: COMPACTION (smashed together) Process that presses sediments together. Thick layers of sediment build up over time & weigh down the layers compacting them.

  8. Those smashed sediments can form into layers like the ones shown above.

  9. There are 4 main processes needed to form sedimentary rock: Step 4: CEMENTATION (glued together) Dissolved minerals seep into spaces between particles (sediments) & then crystallize as they harden.

  10. Examples of cementation…

  11. 3 Types of Sedimentary Rocks • Clastic Sedimentary Rock Made from fragments that are squeezed together

  12. Comparing 2 Clastic Sedimentary Rocks: Shale Forms from mud - tiny clay particles, quartz & calcite; Sandstone Forms from sand on beaches, ocean floor, river beds, etc

  13. Comparing 2 more… Conglomerate From rounded sediments Breccia From larger, sharp fragments

  14. 3 Types of Sedimentary Rocks 2. Organic Sedimentary Rock Forms where the remains of plants & animals are deposited in thick layers

  15. Comparing 2 Organic Sedimentary Rocks Coal From swamp plants buried in water for millions of years (plants  peat  coal) Limestone Forms from hard shells w/calcite from seashells, coral, clams, oysters or skeletons that pile up on the ocean floor for millions of years slowly changing the sediment to limestone

  16. Use for coal & a location of limestone… Coal Limestone *** Plant Bowen is a power plant that uses coal. Has anyone seen this before? It’s not too far away! Limestone in England where there was once H2O covering the land.

  17. 3 Types of Sedimentary Rock 3. Chemical Sedimentary Rock Forms when minerals that have been dissolved in a solution with water, crystallize

  18. Examples of Chemical Sedimentary Rock Limestone *** Another form of limestone forms from calcite in seas, lakes & underground caves – forms caverns & sinkholes in the ground when it is eroded by ground water Rock Salt Forms from halite when evaporation leaves salt behind

  19. Comparing 2 Chemical Sedimentary Rocks Limestone *** Rock Salt 600 million year old rock salt being mined in the Himalayan Crystal Rock Mine. Ruby Falls cave is made of limestone! How did the cave form?

  20. Uses: What things have been made from Sedimentary Rock? • Flint: Arrowheads • Sandstone: THE WHITE HOUSE • Limestone: Blocks & slabs for building, making cement & steel, flooring

  21. Possibly the coolest thing about Sedimentary Rock… FOSSILS are always found in Sedimentary Rock ONLY! Why??? (this might be a good test question…)