Sedimentary Rocks Rocks - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Sedimentary Rocks Rocks

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  1. Sedimentary Rocks Rocks Schwichtenberg

  2. Sedimentary Rocks • Pieces of solid material that have been broken down over time by wind, water, gravity, and other natural processes • Sediments get cemented together – depends on weathering & erosion

  3. How Are Sedimentary Rocks Classified? • Based on how they were formed

  4. Three Main Groups of Sedimentary Rocks 1. Clastic (Detrital) Sedimentary Rock • Most common type of sedimentary rock • Clasts Present • Formed from loose sediment deposits on earth’s surface

  5. Three Main Groups of Sedimentary Rocks 2. Chemical Sedimentary Rock • Rocks formed by chemical weathering • Clasts not present • Change from one form to another • Change Mineral Content

  6. Three Main Groups of Sedimentary Rocks 3. Organic Sedimentary Rock • Rocks formed from once living things • Organic Material – contain carbon

  7. How are Sedimentary Rocks Classified? Clastic vs. Chemical clasts presentclasts not present particles visible particles not visible

  8. Clastic (Detrital)Course Conglomerate Breccia

  9. Detrital Sedimentary Rock

  10. Chemical Sedimentary Rock

  11. Two Types of Weathering • Chemical Weathering • Occurs when minerals within a rock are dissolved or become chemically changed • Physical Weathering • Minerals that are chemically unchanged break along fractures or grain boundaries • Physical properties are changed

  12. Results of Weathering • Clastic Sediments • Rock & Mineral Fragments

  13. Boulder Pebble Cobble Sand Clay Silt

  14. LARGEST SMALLEST!

  15. Erosion • Transport & Movement of sediments Jebel Kharaz, Jordan

  16. Four Main Methods of Erosion • Wind • Water • Ice/Glaciers • Gravity

  17. Formation of Sedimentary Rocks 1. Deposition • When sediments are laid down on surfaces or sink to bottom of bodies of water • Sediments are settling out

  18. Formation of Sedimentary Rocks 2. Burial • Repeated deposition & layering over time • Banding may occur

  19. Formation of Sedimentary Rocks Lithification 3. Compaction 4. Cementation

  20. Lithification 3. Compaction - Squeezing out of fluids from intense pressure - Causes a physical change

  21. Lithification 4. Cementation - Sediments come together to form a solid rock HOW? Cementing materials carried in solution by water through pore spaces and between particles. Have compaction and temperatures rise. Causes a chemical & mineral change and particles join

  22. Cementation

  23. Sequence How Sedimentary Rock is Formed From Clastic Sediments

  24. Sequence How Sedimentary Rock is Formed From Clastic Sediments